The reaction mixture consisting of 0.5 mL of crude extract, 2 mL of guaiacol (100 mM sodium phosphate, pH 6.4 and 4 mM guaiacol) was incubated for 5 min at 30°C. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. This is the first time we show that the SA induced changes in mango fruit affects the attraction of female Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis. Individual volatile compounds were identified by comparing the retention index that was calculated by using homologous series of n-alkanes (C5 to C32 procured from Sigma-Aldrich) as standard [44] and comparing the MS spectra with spectral libraries (Wiley and NIST-2007). A secondary objective was to estimate final seed surface temperatures required for efficacy for B. dorsalis in mango. Among them Bactrocera zonata and Bactrocera dorsalis have been recorded on mango, guava, peach, banana, chicko, oranges and other fleshy fruits [3, 4]. The Oriental fruit fly, B. dorsalis is a major pest on mango causing huge losses to farmers all over world and the pre-harvest management of fruit flies involves several strategies viz., male annihilation, methyl eugenol traps, proteinaceous food baits, and insecticidal cover sprays to minimize the losses at farm level [74]. 1 0 obj Thus, exogenous applications of elicitors may impact insect-plant interaction through modified host plant volatile emissions. Studies have demonstrated that insects use precise ratios of volatiles for host location [2,4]. (2006), Fragments of ATP synthase mediate plant perception of insect attack, Dudareva N, Negre F, Nagegowda DA, Orlova I (2006), Plant volatiles: recent advances and future perspectives, Arimura GI, Matsui K, Takabayashi J (2009), Chemical and molecular ecology of herbivore-induced plant volatiles: proximate factors and their ultimate functions, Silva R, Gimme H W, Lewis J W, Michael JF (2014), Insects feeding on plants: rapid signals and responses preceding the induction of phytochemical release, Falk KL, Kästner J, Bodenhausen N, Schramm K, Paetz C, Vassao DG, et al. All connections were made with PTFE tubing with brass ferrules and fittings (Swagelok, India) and sealed with PTFE tape. Different concentrations of salicylic acid [0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 millimolar (mM)] were prepared in distilled hot water. Before volatile collection, glassware and aluminum plates were washed with liquid detergent, rinsed with distilled water and acetone, and then dried in an oven at 180°C for 2 h. Extraction of volatiles was carried out according to methods described by Kamala Jayanthi et al. Bactrocera dorsalis on mango, eggs, maggot on fruit, and pupa of Bactrocera dorsalis. (Vayssières et al. Recently, we identified a volatile compound γ-octalactone that elicits an innate oviposition response in B. dorsalis. Mangoes treated with SA (1 mL of 2 mM solution per fruit, n = 6) were exposed to gravid B. dorsalis for oviposition at different post SA treatment time intervals viz., 1, 2, 3 days after the spray. The pupal and adult emergence decreased in the SA treated fruit when compared to the control (unpaired t test, t = 11.93, df = 6, P = 0.0001 [pupae], t = 17.96, df = 6, P = 0.0001 [adults emerged]). The fruit were sprayed in the laboratory with SA continuously for four days (one spray per day) and then used in bioassays. Total flavonoids present in the samples were determined as described by Chun et al. The management of fruit flies from an Indian perspective (mainly for B. dorsalis) can be classified into two categories, namely pre- and post-harvest management prac-tices. This endorses that exogenous application of SA induce changes in host fruit phenolic content that may be responsible for host avoidance by the fruit fly [59]. The Oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is an important quarantine pest around the globe. %PDF-1.5 Our sincere appreciation and thanks to Dr Charles Zaiontz for his valuable statistical support and guidance. Bactrocera carambolae are a polyphagous species which infects over 100 different host plants, including avocado, guava, mango, papaya and orange, among several others. Identification of neryl formate as an airborne aggregation pheromone for the American house dust mite, Gas chromatographic characterization of organic substances in the retention index system, A colorimetry of total phenolics with phosphomolybdic-phosphotungstic acid reagents, Chun OK, Kim DO, Moon HY, Kang HG, Lee CY (2003), Contribution of individual polyphenolics to total antioxidant capacity of plums, Lowry H, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951), Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent, Effect of pre-and post-harvest application of salicylic acid or methyl jasmonate on inducing disease resistance of sweet cherry fruit in storage, Evolution of oviposition behavior and host preference in Lepidoptera, Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects, Pickett JA, Wadhams LJ, Woodcock CM (1998), Insect supersense: mate and host location as model systems for exploiting olfactory mechanisms, Perception of plant volatile blends by herbivorous insects-finding the right mix. (2014), Agroecosystem resilience to an invasive insect species that could expand its geographical range in response to global climate change, Anshul N, Rajendra SB, Rashmi G, Dwijendra S (2013), Effect of benzo-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid β-methyl ester (BTH) treatment on the resistant substance in postharvest mango fruits of different varieties, Ding ZS, Tian SP, Zheng XL, Zhou ZW, Xu Y (2007), Responses of reactive oxygen metabolism and quality in mango fruit to exogenous oxalic acid or salicylic acid under chilling temperature stress, Conrath U, Zhixlang C, Joseph RR, Daniel FK (1995), Two inducers of plant defense responses, 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and salicylic acid, inhibit catalase activity in tobacco, Effect of salicylic acid and benzothiaodiazole on antioxidative enzymes and phenolic contents in Indian mustard (, Peng J, Xiaojun D, Jianhua H, Shihai J, Xuexia M, et al. Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae) under south Gujarat mango ecosystem J. K. BANA*, HEMANT SHARMA, SUSHIL KUMAR and PUSHPENDRA SINGH ICAR-AICRP on Fruits, Agriculture Experimental Station Navsari Agricultural University, Paria, Gujarat 396 145 E-mail*: jugalbana@gmail.com ABSTRACT The field experiment was conducted during 2013-16 at Navsari … Damage caused by the fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) (syn. The result showed that only 22.5% larvae reached the pupal stage in SA treated fruit as against 84.25% in the control. Enhanced levels of these plant defense compounds would have affected larval growth and development resulting in poor pupation and adult emergence of B. dorsalis. In summary, the results indicate that SA treatment reduced oviposition, larval development and adult emergence of B. dorsalis and suggest a role of SA in enhancing mango tolerance to B. dorsalis. We thank Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR), New Delhi for providing financial support to PDKJ, RMA and VK through the National Fellow Project. (2014), Reciprocal crosstalk between jasmonate and salicylate defence-signalling pathways modulates plant volatile emission and herbivore host-selection behaviour, Hayat S, Mohd I, Arif SW, Mohammed NA, Aqil A (2012), Salicylic acids local, systemic or inter-systemic regulators, Serghini K, Perez LA, Castejon MM, Garcia TL, Jorrin JV, (2001), Enhanced enzyme activities and induction of acquired resistance in pea with elicitors, Al-Wakeel SAM, Hani M, Mahmoud MG, Mahmoud MYM (2013), Induced systemic resistance: an innovative control method to manage branched broomrape (, Resistance to development of larvae of apple maggot in crab apples, Aluja M, Birke A, Ceyman M, Guillén L, Arrigoni E, Baumgartner D, et al. Volatiles were collected from fruit for 24 h and the Porapak Q columns were eluted with 750 μl of redistilled diethyl ether. First instar larvae of B. dorsalis (n = 100) obtained from a closed laboratory colony (maintained at 27 ± 1°C, 75 ± 2% RH and 14L: 10D h photoperiod) were placed in each fruit using fine camel-hair brush and allowed to settle. Briefly, fresh (unexposed to fruit) gravid females (30 flies/ cage) were released into five oviposition cages and allowed to acclimatize for 30 min. The SA treated and untreated mango fruit (n = 3; 1g in 20 mL) were extracted with methanol (80%). already built in. Greany PD, McDonlad RE, Shaw PE, Schroeder WJ, Howard DF, Hatton TT, et al. B. dorsalis has been seen in more than 200 kinds of fruit and nut plants, but the species lay eggs in mango, papaya, and avocado fruits most often. Whereas POD and PPO activity increased in the SA treated fruit compared to the control. Containers containing sterilized sand collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the anonymous and. 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