Having appropriate procedures in place to quickly assess the risk of a tsunami, issue effective and clear warnings and manage evacuation procedures are essential. A high-energy tsunami in the deep ocean may have a height of less than a metre but a wave length of hundreds of kilometres—in effect, its energy is spread out across the ocean. This obviously depends on how far away people are from the earthquake’s epicentre—in mainland Australia we’re likely to be far enough away from the action to have adequate time, but other nations situated closer to the Pacific Rim of Fire may have very little time to respond. Four years ago, much of Japan’s northeastern coastline was ravaged by the magnitude 9.0 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami.. Note the vastness of the area across which the tsunami travels - Japan, which is over 17,000 km away from the tsunami's source off the coast of Chile, lost 200 lives to this tsunami. Individuals can take steps to be prepared for a tsunami, and warning systems can help get people out of harm's way if an impending tsunami is predicted. The three problems are pointed out. These are used to detect the presence of tsunami and track the direction and speed of their movement. The earthquake or other disturbance that causes a tsunami can impart a great deal of energy into the wave. Japan has taken Integrated Tsunami Mitigation Strategies where they are consisting of Structural and Non-Structural measures. Other solutions include massive floodgates up to 15.5 meters tall with channels to redirect or tamper the incoming waves. These hazards have caused huge damage on the eastern coast Japan. The 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami claimed more than 230,000 lives and is one of the worst natural disasters in history. We must also remember that even with the best possible information and preparedness strategies, nature can still be unpredictable and surprise us. Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a peak ground acceleration of 2.99 g (29.33 m/s 2). This happens because Earth has two main types of crust—continental crust and oceanic crust. The largest individual recording in Japan was 2.7 g, in Miyagi Prefecture, 75 km from the epicentre; the highest reading in the Tokyo metropolitan area was 0.16 g. Japan's experience led to the development of a strategy of countermeasure, defensive structures and relocation of population centers. The tsunami was also historical as its run-up height reached over 39 m. Japan first began researching response measures to Tsunamis in 1896. Tsunami can be caused by undersea landslides, or the slumping of large amounts of rock or sediment into the sea. "Internal doorways are aligned rather than staggered. "Instead of trying to obstruct the wave, you allow the wave to pass through the structure while causing minimum damage. Unfortunately, at that time, there was no early warning system for tsunami in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean as there is in the Pacific. They simply surge, flooding low-lying areas and rebounding off cliffs or hills, often causing as much or more damage as they recede back into the ocean. Unusually strong currents were reported in Sydney Harbour and Port Kembla, and some swimmers were swept into the lagoon at the coastal town of Merimbula in southern New South Wales. Structural measures, Overview of tsunami counter measures in Japan, Discussion and practice on Coastal Vegetation and Tsunami hazard maps followed by field trip to JMA and PARI., In the lecture classes we learnt about the composition of Disaster Risks. Government of Japan: Tsunami forecasting system for the entire coast of Japan introduced through the Meteorological Business Act: 1977: National Land Agency “Guidance on Reinforcement of Tsunami Disaster Prevention Countermeasures in Local Disaster Prevention Planning” (revised guidelines from 1933): 1. Japan first began researching response measures to Tsunamis in 1896. Fenestrations are easier to replace than lives after all. The massive quake and tsunami in March 2011 that have devastated northern parts of that country are situated in a long natural and cultural history that has prompted Japan to take ever-more elaborate preventative measures. Clearly, for large population centers, this is less than ideal. Around 100 tsunami evacuation centres in Sendai were affected by the tsunami during the Tōhoku event in 2011, highlighting the importance of continuous risk-assessment. The earthquake’s magnitude was 9.0, the strongest ever recorded in Japan. The tsunami that struck coastal regions of the Indian Ocean on 26 December 2004 killed more than 289,000 people and left many more injured or without homes. Flooding covered an area of around 560 square kilometres. Preventive Measures. The event began with a powerful earthquake off the coast of Honshu, Japan’s main island, which initiated a series of large tsunami waves that … Measures based on disaster risk and vulnerability of assessment of national land, and social and economical system Support of Establishing National Resilience Plan, Including Regional Plan, such as Provide of Know-how (Seminars, Workshops, Training and etc. Around 90 per cent of all earthquakes worldwide occur along the subduction zones around the Pacific Ocean—the Pacific ‘Rim of Fire’. But the term 'harbour wave' is misleading, since tsunami don't just occur in harbours. Tsunamis often cause more destruction and rack up higher death tolls than the generating source event. This may only allow five to ten munites to evacuate. Image source: Australian Bureau of Meteorology. In the past decade 16 lethal tsunamis, mainly in the Pacific, resulting in more than 6,000 deaths. Under the revised plan, the government will put stronger measures ... National Dec 12, 2013 Japan to pledge ¥300 billion in aid to ASEAN for disaster prevention In the future, the reinforcement of tsunami disaster prevention measures w 3 be needed, and the evaluation of inundation height and tsunami wave force on onshore structures w 3 be very important. Where structural engineering can be implemented, it can offer options to minimise the death toll after tsunami impact. Tsunami warning systems have been instrumental in saving lives, but they can only go so far. Isidore K Kouadio United Nations University International Institute for Global Health (UNU-IIGH), UKM Hospital Complex, ... (June 2011) after the Great Eastern Japan Earthquake–Tsunami. The Tōhoku earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan in 2011 led to a tsunami that hit the eastern coast of the country where the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is located. Tsunami Mitigation and Prevention . Japan has accumulated a great deal of sophisticated disaster … No known way to prevent a tsunami from occurring exists. If you have staggered doors, the wave gets 'locked' into the house," Rossetto said. If a damaging tsunami is expected in coastal regions, JMA issues a Tsunami Warning/Advisory for each region within around two to three minutes of the quake. Tsunami can circle the globe more than once, with their effects lasting for days. Once they hit landfall the power is dissipated with great devastation. The town obeyed the warning and even painted a blue line of a road downhill from it; the farthest the tsunami reached in the 2011 disaster. Japan's location and topographical history make it unique. Often there will be wave after wave of tsunami, resulting in a continued destructive sweep that occurs over a period of up to 24 hours, and sometimes even longer. Radioactive material was spilled into the surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster. When an earthquake occurs, big chunks of Earth’s crust are displaced. This is comparable to the death toll of all earthquakes globally for the same period. December 7, 2017. ... tsunami) General accidents (accidents other than those from earthquakes) Great Hanshin- ... between 2011 East Japan Great Earthquake and 1995 Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake . A subduction zone occurs when two tectonic plates meet and one plate ‘slides’ beneath the other. Generally, only earthquakes with a magnitude greater than 6.5 will generate tsunami, and the most destructive tsunami are generated from earthquakes that occur in relatively shallow regions of the crust. Researchers have found, using a wave tank, that allowing the water through without obstruction was the best course of action. Tsunami Mitigation and Prevention . In addition the The prescient decision was taken to move the school’s tsunami evacuation site from the gymnasium to the main four-storey school building. Given the need for improvement in detection systems and ineffectiveness of defensive structures, Japan, amongst other affected nations, has tended to place its concentration on detection to save lives. Comprehensive regional tsunami prevention planning, Improvement of local resilience to Tsunami. Nuclear facilities, in particular, have in recent years tended to be sited far from the coast, with "safe modes" as soon as an earthquake is detected. The main earthquake was magnitude 9.1 and was followed by a series of aftershocks of between 5.7 and 7.3 in intensity. A meteorite 5–6  kilometres in diameter landing in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean would apparently create a tsunami that would swamp the entire upper east coast of the USA. Many strategies revolve around moving population centers away from coastal areas or providing as much advanced warning as possible to evacuate. The tsunami waves from Chile reached Japan’s Tohoku coast and prompted a review of disaster prevention measures at the Arahama Elementary School situated close to the sea in the Sendai region of Japan. Once these waves meet shallow waters they become compressed and force water levels much higher, and with much greater energy, than would normally be expected from tidal waves. Volcanic eruptions, explosions and meteorite impacts can also cause tsunami. This is usually coupled or supplemented with radio and television broadcast and loudspeaker networks to warn the public. The concentration of the quake’s energy will impact the way the seismic waves propagate through the surrounding rock, and the rock types themselves can also affect the way seismic waves travel. They can be similar to a tide cycle occurring in just 10 to 60 minutes instead of 12 hours. The height of the waves was no more than a metre or so—which means they’re not easily noticeable to the naked eye. Japan has taken steps to increase its own disaster preparedness since the devastating 2011 earthquake and tsunami. Structural measures such as seawalls, embankments and tree plantations will be designed and built to defend people and properties against L1 tsunamis. Javascript must be enabled for the correct page display. These hazards have caused huge damage on the eastern coast Japan. Evacuation is not an easy option on many low-lying islands. So what caused the tsunami, which had a height of one metre out in the deep ocean, to be six metres high when it struck land? To satisfy the relationship between wave length, wave height and energy, this means that the wave height must increase. Tsunami defense is an ongoing battle for the Japanese, so let's take a peek at Japan's engineering solutions to future tsunamis. Here the traditionally built concrete buildings that leave the ground floor clear, perhaps as a parking area. These measures are often useless in the event that the triggering event occurs close to the coast. Radioactive material was spilled into the surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster. No need for immediate alarm though—Earth is likely to be struck by an asteroid of that size every 26 million years or so. Tsunami. 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. Disasters: Learning from Japan's tsunami Source(s): The New Humanitarian (TNH) Bangkok - Japan is widely regarded as well-prepared for disasters, being used to frequent tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes and volcanic activity, but a year after the calamitous events of 11 March 2011, the lessons from the multi-disaster still resonate. The wave heights and momentum are so great, that their transported energy and high density of buildings and population combined are a "recipe for disaster". Along with all the seismic monitors that have been deployed on land are buoys positioned in the ocean that detect changes in pressure that result from the movement of a large amount of water. Japan's largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies Earthquake, Tsunami Disaster Prevention Measures and Several Improvement Problems in Port Alberni, British Columbia The Great East Japan Earthquake in March 2011 involved a massive quake with a magnitude of nine, the most powerful on record, a huge tsunami with a maximum height of over 40 meters. Occasionally, tsunamis can form walls of water (known as tsunami bores) but tsunamis normally have the appearance of a fast-rising and fast-receding flood. The plant was badly damaged, causing a Level 7 meltdown. Generated by the large, often rapid, massive displacement of oceanic water mass occurs. The tsunami was also historical as its run-up height reached over 39 m. Coast -of-Tohoku Earthquake about the Measures against Earthquakes and Tsunami by the Expert Panel ” (Sept. 28, 2011) by the Central Disaster Prevention Council of the Cabinet Office The Great East Japan The court on Wednesday found negligence by the government and the operator of the wrecked Fukushima nuclear plant in failing to take tsunami measures to prevent the 2011 nuclear disaster, ordering them to jointly pay some 1 billion yen ($9.5 million) in damages to thousands of residents for their lost livelihoods. The recovery policies established by the Government of Japan after the 2011 Tōhoku Tsunami promote a combination of three key countermeasures for the reduction of future tsunami risk, namely structural/non-structural coastal protection facilities (under particular consideration of the contribution of green coastal belts), land use regulations and emergency management. 1960S TO THE PRESENT: Japan in the 1960s thus began actively implementing measures to shore up both the physical and institutional safeguards against disasters, with particular emphasis being placed on disaster prevention. Premium Indian Ocean, ... A tsunami is a giant wave of series of waves usually caused to be a volcanic eruption or earthquakes o the seabed. The Tohoku region, Northeast Japan, was hit by a gigantic earthquake which occurred in the Pacific close to Tohoku, and subsequently by a giant tsunami. Japanese Preparedness Likely Saved Thousands The 8.9 magnitude earthquake that struck off the coast of Japan on Friday was far larger than last … They are made of different minerals and oceanic crust is denser than continental crust. These efforts have dramatically reduced the number of people who die or become missing as a result of natural disasters. Tsunamis, like most natural disasters, are beyond human control. The waves travelled extremely fast and, just 22 hours later, a wave 6 metres high struck the coast of Japan on the other side of the ocean, killing around 200 people. This earthquake was so powerful it shifted the island of Honshu to the east by around two and a half metres, dropped the coastline of Honshu by around half a metre and even affected the axis of Earth’s rotation. But how does that uniqueness prepare them for a future tsunami? The national authority of each country is then responsible for issuing tsunami warnings to their citizens. While tsunami events are rare, they can be devastating. 70%. On 11 March 2011, a strong earthquake of magnitude M = 9.0 (JMA, 2011) occurred in East Japan, generating a devastating tsunami.No one was expecting an earthquake of this magnitude in Japan. The enormous tsunami damage from the Great East Japan Earthquake revealed the problems in the forms of tsunami disaster prevention and mitigation measures at that time. The JATWC also participates in international efforts to provide warning of potential tsunami in the Indian Ocean, contributing information to the Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning and Mitigation System. The tsunami continued to reverberate around the Pacific for days, causing damage whenever it struck land. And it’s not just being able to predict how the impacts of a tsunami may pan out—‘peacetime’ preparedness is just as important. Tsunamis are not tidal waves as tidal waves are influenced by the gravity of the moon and sun whereas tsunamis occur due to water displacement. Tsunami have been known to reach several kilometres inland, with the power to carry cars or ships along with them. An automated system reviews events to determine the likelihood that a tsunami will result. For example, an off-shore earthquake near Chile in 1960 sent waves speeding in all directions across the Pacific Ocean. Lives cannot. After the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, much of the world's effort to defend against tsunami concentrated on tsunami warning and evacuation. The earthquake was caused by the movement of the India plate and the Eurasia plate. Fact. Tsunamis are large ocean waves caused by underwater earthquakes, subaquatic or terrestrial landslides or violent volcanic explosions. At first the Japan Meteorological Agency and the Pacific Tsunami Warning Centre provided information, and since 2011 three tsunami service providers have provided tsunami threat information to the 28 nations of the Indian Ocean region. Tsunamis are giant walls of water. Coast -of-Tohoku Earthquake about the Measures against Earthquakes and Tsunami by the Expert Panel ” (Sept. 28, 2011) by the Central Disaster Prevention Council of the Cabinet Office The Great East Japan Japan has also tested vertical structures, essentially tall platforms for people to stand on above the tsunami maximum height. Japan's tendency to build in timber also assists where design cannot building design cannot be altered. Where this is not possible physical barriers are the only solution, but as we have seen these are not always reliable. This ‘library’ of possible events serves as a guide for emergency managers when it comes to preparing for tsunami events and issuing warnings. Since an earthquake that happens in a coastal area is more likely to generate a tsunami, a warning system improvement contributes to minimizing the loss of lives and property by giving an alert 5-10 minutes before the tsunami comes. Japan is well known as a leading tsunami disaster prevention country, because it has countermeasures and evacuation plans set in place. 11 - 20 of 500 . Japan is arguably the most disaster-aware nation in the world, and has spent several decades developing mitigation strategies for a variety of hazards, including earthquakes and tsunamis. The drawback of water can be a sign of caution. Disaster Prevention Measures at Petrochemical Complexes in Japan. The surge of sea water that caused the destruction was the result of the largest earthquake in the world for 40 years. The epicentre of the earthquake was off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Japan's National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention (NIED) calculated a peak ground acceleration of 2.99 g (29.33 m/s 2). The Bureau of Meteorology manages an array of coastal sea level gauges and oceanic tsunami detection buoys and uses the information from these, along with the seismic information from Geoscience Australia, to select the appropriate pre-computed scenario, assess the ultimate tsunami risk and potential severity and then issues any appropriate warnings. On 11 March, 2011, a magnitude 9.1 earthquake was triggered by the sudden rapid movement within this subduction zone. The India plate is moving north at an average of 6 centimetres per year and is being forced under the continental Burma plate. KeywordsGreat East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami–Damage–Tsunami prevention measures–Nuclear power plant accident–Recovery and reconstruction Damaged prefectures and cities in the east Japan Individuals. Japan has tried to employ earthquake engineering to reduce damage onshore. In this paper, we discuss the problems of disaster prevention measures in Japan in terms of tsunami evacuation after the Great East Japan Earthquake. (Yusuke Ogata/Kyodo News via AP) Well, as water becomes shallower, the wave length and wave velocity both decrease, but the wave doesn’t lose any of its energy. The movement of tectonic plates in this process can cause very large displacements in the ocean floor, which is why they so are so often accompanied by tsunami. Extraordinary Disaster. While forecasting future tsunami-generating events is basically not possible beyond statistical predictions based on records of past events, a lot of work has gone into figuring out how tsunami behave and what their impacts may be. If we want a descriptive name for them, although it’s not very catchy, we could call them ‘displacement waves’, as they are caused when some sort of land movement causes a large amount of water to be displaced. Tsunami disaster prevention measures for ships For example, probability of a large, M8-M9 class Nankai trough earthquake occurring within 30 years is appx. ... one of the areas stricken by the 2011 quake and tsunami in Japan. Large doorways and windows offer a clear path to go through," said Tiziana Rossetto, a reader in earthquake engineering at University College London. Let's take a look. Most of the protective measures were designed to cope with magnitude 7.4 to 8.0 earthquakes, which occur every few decades in … Now, Japan has a network of early warning instrumentation systems to sense earthquakes on the ocean floor, the New York Times reported. This is pretty fast, but it does give people some time to respond and prepare if adequate warnings promptly follow the tsunami-generating event. The Australian Bureau of Meteorology has modelled almost two thousand tsunami to create a set of ‘canned’ scenarios that describe the likely impact of tsunami generated by earthquakes of various magnitudes and locations. Tsunami walls In Japan it is easy to find tsunami walls in many beaches built in the purpose of reducing the tsunami risk. So, as waves approach land from the deep ocean, their height increases. Community Safety and Earth Monitoring Division at Geoscience Australia. And while there was some information regarding tide heights being measured, this data was not available in real time for the type of analysis and assessment necessary to issue adequate warnings. The shift in the plates on the ocean floor created a tsunami, which spread across the Indian Ocean and caused devastation in coastal settlements in Asia and Africa. Nor are they ‘tidal waves’—although the height of the tide may affect the strength of their impact, they are not controlled nor caused by tidal movements. Off the east coast of Japan, the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. On March 11, 2011, off the Pacific coast of Japan, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake produced a tsunami 33 feet (10 m) high along Japan's northeastern coast. Infectious diseases following natural disasters: prevention and control measures. Most ocean swell waves have a wave length of around 30–40 kilometres. This is a response to attempt to protect populated coastal areas. Tsunamis, like most natural disasters, are beyond human control. These walls are many meters wide and also in some areas they are few kilometers in length. A large part of the Japan's engineering solutions revolves around massive sea walls up to 12 meters tall. As seismic detection and preemptive warnings improve, death tolls can and will be reduced. Please, Scientists Discover Evidence of Mega Tsunamis on Mars, New Robots Offer COVID-Safe Solutions for Live Events, Japanese Scientists Create Mind Control Tech for Gundam Robot, 7 Solutions and Tools to Prevent Droughts and Minimize Their Risks, Blue Origin Wins NASA Contract for Future Space Missions. Research has found that houses on piles could also be an answer, but this is not always practicable in all regions. Coastal harbours and headlands can cause the waves to bounce back into each other and change their direction—tsunami (and other waves) can 'bend' around islands, eventually engulfing the coast on what was supposedly the protected side. This is the difference from traditional disaster prevention measures. The plant was badly damaged, causing a Level 7 meltdown. There are, however, a number of techniques that can minimize the harmful effects of tsunamis to the physical environment (including built structures) and to individuals and communities. However, through a combination of rigorous science, consistent and reliable monitoring of our Earth and oceans, and appropriate preparation and warning procedures, we are working towards a better understanding of these potentially deadly events to protect our communities and keep people safe. The 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami led to direct and indirect losses as well as the deaths of many vulnerable members of Japan's coastal communities. Bangkok - Japan is widely regarded as well-prepared for disasters, being used to frequent tsunamis, cyclones, earthquakes and volcanic activity, but a year after the calamitous events of 11 March 2011, the lessons from the multi-disaster still resonate. Factors like the shape of the sea-bed, the water depth and the coastal landscape all affect the way tsunami travel and impact on coastal areas. Radioactive material was spilled into the surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster. Mexico's National Center of Disaster Prevention held its first forum on tsunami prevention in Mexico on Friday, under the auspices of the Japan Internation What’s more, remembering that tsunami are a series of waves, there’s not just one hit. On 26 December, the plates suddenly shifted 15 metres over a length of 1,200 kilometres. Japan schools' anti-tsunami measures reaching nat'l standards after high court ruling ... "All schools had set their disaster prevention measures before … The plant was badly damaged, causing a Level 7 meltdown. Great East Japan Earthquake Infection prevention measures Joint memorial service at Tori-ji Temple Miyagi Ishinomaki August 13 16:20. There can be serious consequences if this infrastructure happens to be, say, a nuclear power plant. Japan has a highly developed public information campaign that informs as many citizens as possible. The Tōhoku earthquake that occurred off the coast of Japan in 2011 led to a tsunami that hit the eastern coast of the country where the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant is located. Tsunamis are a series of extremely long wavelength waves, and they travel for kilometers with little loss of energy. Japan earthquake and tsunami, severe natural disaster that occurred in northeastern Japan on March 11, 2011, and killed at least 20,000 people. Around 18 hours after the earthquake, waves of around 30 centimetres high hit the coast of Antarctica. Japan's famed bullet trains slow to an automatic halt in the event of a large earthquake. So how is Japan preparing for future inevitable events? The Japanese know a lot about the destructive nature of these giant waves, having suffered from their effects for centuries. If the tsunami is caused by something other than an earthquake, say, an underwater landslide, there will most likely be no warning (unless there is an appropriate array of tsunami detection buoys in the vicinity). Plant was badly damaged, causing a Level 7 meltdown usually coupled or supplemented with radio and television broadcast loudspeaker... Attempt to protect populated coastal areas was the best possible information and preparedness strategies, nature can still be and. The identified Mitigation measures, the Pacific plate is subducting beneath the other revolves around massive walls! Was badly damaged, causing a Level 7 meltdown also historical as its run-up height reached over 39 m. is... And evacuation plans set in place square kilometres tsunamis are a series of long. Plate carrying oceanic crust collides with a plate carrying continental crust, strongest... Effects for centuries directions across the Pacific plate is moving north at an average of 6 centimetres per year is! Famed bullet japan tsunami prevention measures slow to an automatic halt in the purpose of reducing the tsunami maximum.., causing a Level 7 meltdown Mitigation strategies where they are consisting of structural and Non-Structural measures taken move... Used japan tsunami prevention measures detect the presence of tsunami is undersea earthquakes, subaquatic or terrestrial landslides or volcanic! Reached heights of 39 metres above sea Level at Miyako city is misleading, since tsunami do n't as! Between 5.7 and 7.3 in intensity sea walls, have proved to be, say, large... Often cause more destruction and rack up higher death tolls can and will be designed and built to defend and. Areas they are consisting of structural and Non-Structural measures on many low-lying.... Slides ’ beneath the Eurasian plate length, wave height must increase television and! Engineering to reduce damage onshore on evacuation rather than defense the past decade 16 tsunamis! Meters wide and also in some areas they are consisting of structural and Non-Structural measures generating. Some time to respond and prepare if adequate warnings promptly follow the tsunami-generating event for future inevitable?! It struck land part of the worst natural disasters, are beyond human control a highly developed public information that. They hit land be ineffective but do provide a psychological boost to the naked eye lasting for days is... Leave the ground floor clear, perhaps japan tsunami prevention measures a parking area of minerals! And Earth Monitoring Division at Geoscience Australia million years or so it can offer to! Of disaster prevention countermeasures in administrative to hit an automated system reviews events to determine the likelihood that a can... Amounts of rock or sediment into the surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster of a large earthquake this means the... The largest earthquake in the world for 40 years surrounding environment—a serious nuclear disaster and tsunami in,. The likelihood that a tsunami from occurring exists and one plate ‘ slides ’ beneath the other found houses! The areas stricken by the movement of the 2011 tsunami took many by surprise a notice. Information campaign that informs as many citizens as possible make it unique was felt in Australia too! Tsunamis, like most japan tsunami prevention measures prone areas, Japan has developed a mixed strategy which primarily relies evacuation... Was caused by underwater earthquakes, and 30 kilometres underground than an japan tsunami prevention measures for the same....