Note that, ionization energies measure the tendency of a neutral atom to resist the loss of electrons. This fact has key implications for the building up of the periodic table of elements. [104] Iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable intellectual disability, a result that occurs primarily when babies or small children are rendered hypothyroidic by a lack of the element. Mercury is commonly known as quicksilver and was formerly named hydrargyrum. Iodine is a chemical element with the symbol I and atomic number 53. An antiseptic incorporating the element. All of its isotopes are radioactive. Elements. A possible crystal structure of Iodine is orthorhombic structure. Iodine is a chemical element with atomic number 53 which means there are 53 protons and 53 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Aluminum is Al. Knowledge of the electron configuration of different atoms is useful in understanding the structure of the periodic table of elements. Electronegativity, symbol χ, is a chemical property that describes the tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards this atom. Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table. The chemical symbol for Zinc is Zn. Also, this element exists in a solid state at room temperature. It is even less abundant than the so-called rare earths. The chemical symbol for Silver is Ag. [62], The spectra of the iodine molecule, I2, consists of (not exclusively) tens of thousands of sharp spectral lines in the wavelength range 500–700 nm. This affinity is known as the second electron affinity and these energies are positive. The chemical symbol for Molybdenum is Mo. Test. It is the heaviest halogen (halogens are group 17 chemical elements in the periodic table). Created by. The chemical symbol for Hydrogen is H. With a standard atomic weight of circa 1.008, hydrogen is the lightest element on the periodic table. For other uses, see, Desormes and Clément made their announcement at the Institut impérial de France on 29 November 1813; a summary of their announcement appeared in the. See also: Atomic Number – Does it conserve in a nuclear reaction? Krypton is a member of group 18 (noble gases) elements. Thorium is commonly found in monazite sands (rare earth metals containing phosphate mineral). Approximately 60–70% of thallium production is used in the electronics industry. [72], About half of all produced iodine goes into various organoiodine compounds, another 15% remains as the pure element, another 15% is used to form potassium iodide, and another 15% for other inorganic iodine compounds. UCSF Department of Radiology & Biomedical Imaging, single photon emission computed tomography, elements which occur in significant quantities, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, "Atomic weights of the elements 2013 (IUPAC Technical Report)", Magnetic susceptibility of the elements and inorganic compounds, "Découverte d'une substance nouvelle dans le Vareck", "Bernard Courtois (1777–1838) famed for discovering iodine (1811), and his life in Paris from 1798", "Sur un nouvel acide formé avec la substance décourverte par M. Courtois", "Sur la combination de l'iode avec d'oxigène", Liddell–Scott–Jones Greek–English Lexicon, "Sur la nouvelle substance découverte par M. 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Electron Affinity of Iodine is 295.2 kJ/mol. Solids are similar to liquids in that both are condensed states, with particles that are far closer together than those of a gas. The iodine test for starch is still used to detect counterfeit banknotes printed on starch-containing paper. [77], In the alternative, iodine may be produced from iodophors, which contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent (the iodide ion may be thought of loosely as the iodophor in triiodide water solutions). Cadmium is a chemical element with atomic number 48 which means there are 48 protons and 48 electrons in the atomic structure. The name xenon for this gas comes from the Greek word ξένον [xenon], neuter singular form of ξένος [xenos], meaning ‘foreign(er)’, ‘strange(r)’, or ‘guest’. In nuclear industry, especially artificial xenon 135 has a tremendous impact on the operation of a nuclear reactor. Sodium is a chemical element with atomic number 11 which means there are 11 protons and 11 electrons in the atomic structure. Similarly, Cu2HgI4 is used as a precipitating reagent to test for alkaloids. The chemical symbol for Lutetium is Lu. Hafnium is a chemical element with atomic number 72 which means there are 72 protons and 72 electrons in the atomic structure. For example, silicon has nine possible integer oxidation states from −4 to +4, but only -4, 0 and +4 are common oxidation states. It has an estimated density of 40.7 x 103 kg/m3. Samarium is a typical member of the lanthanide series, it is a moderately hard silvery metal that readily oxidizes in air. [99] In Japan, consumption was considered much higher, ranging between 5,280 μg/day to 13,800 μg/day from dietary seaweed or kombu kelp,[90] often in the form of Kombu Umami extracts for soup stock and potato chips. The forces of chemical bonding causes this repetition. Pentafluoro-λ 5-iodane. Despite its high price and rarity, thulium is used as the radiation source in portable X-ray devices. [102], In areas where there is little iodine in the diet,[103] typically remote inland areas and semi-arid equatorial climates where no marine foods are eaten, iodine deficiency gives rise to hypothyroidism, symptoms of which are extreme fatigue, goitre, mental slowing, depression, weight gain, and low basal body temperatures. Tin is a chemical element with atomic number 50 which means there are 50 protons and 50 electrons in the atomic structure. The chemical symbol for Iron is Fe. The chemical symbol for Thallium is Tl. It rarely occurs in its elemental state or as pure ore compounds in the Earth’s crust. [118] For this reason, iodine was designated by the United States Drug Enforcement Administration as a List I precursor chemical under 21 CFR 1310.02.[119]. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. [117], Phosphorus can reduce elemental iodine to hydroiodic acid, which is a reagent effective for reducing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine to methamphetamine. Dysprosium is used for its high thermal neutron absorption cross-section in making control rods in nuclear reactors, for its high magnetic susceptibility in data storage applications. Strontium is a chemical element with atomic number 38 which means there are 38 protons and 38 electrons in the atomic structure. Electron affinity can be either positive or negative value. At levels of 2 ppm, iodine is immediately dangerous to life and health. The chemical symbol for Cadmium is Cd. [100] The adult UL in Japan was last revised to 3,000 µg/day in 2015. Californium is an actinide element, the sixth transuranium element to be synthesized, and has the second-highest atomic mass of all the elements that have been produced in amounts large enough to see with the unaided eye (after einsteinium). Oxidation states are typically represented by integers which may be positive, zero, or negative. (countable, uncountable, obsolete) An iodide. Our Privacy Policy is a legal statement that explains what kind of information about you we collect, when you visit our Website. www.nuclear-power.net. Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and osmium form a group of elements referred to as the platinum group metals (PGMs). Other ions with which it interacts, if any: This does not react with other ions. [Xe] 6s2 for barium). The chemical symbol for Scandium is Sc. Tantalum is a chemical element with atomic number 73 which means there are 73 protons and 73 electrons in the atomic structure. [101], After iodine fortification programs such as iodisation of salt have been implemented, some cases of iodine-induced hyperthyroidism have been observed (so-called Jod-Basedow phenomenon). Sodium iodide (NaI) is an ionic compound (a salt) containing an Na⁺ ion and a I⁻ ion. The chemical symbol for Yttrium is Y. Yttrium is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a “rare-earth element”. Ruthenium is a rare transition metal belonging to the platinum group of the periodic table. Francium is an alkali metal, that has one valence electron. In nuclear industry boron is commonly used as a neutron absorber due to the high neutron cross-section of isotope 10B. Discoverer: Marinsky, Jacob A. and Coryell, Charles D. and Glendenin, Lawerence. The density of Hassium results from its high atomic weight and from the significant decrease in ionic radii of the elements in the lanthanide series, known as lanthanide and actinide contraction. Silicon is a chemical element with atomic number 14 which means there are 14 protons and 14 electrons in the atomic structure. Actinium is a chemical element with atomic number 89 which means there are 89 protons and 89 electrons in the atomic structure. The function or functions it performs in the body: I- is used to make thyroid hormones. The most electronegative atom, fluorine, is assigned a value of 4.0, and values range down to cesium and francium which are the least electronegative at 0.7. [69][71], These sources ensure that Chile and Japan are the largest producers of iodine today. Insoluble in water. The chemical symbol for Fermium is Fm. Hauptgruppe, bzw. The chemical symbol for Arsenic is As. At some point the amplitude of vibration becomes so large that the atoms start to invade the space of their nearest neighbors and disturb them and the melting process initiates. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Since it is difficult to measure extreme temperatures precisely without bias, both have been cited in the literature as having the higher boiling point. It is a synthetic element (first synthesised at Hasse in Germany) and radioactive. Excess iodine can be more cytotoxic in the presence of selenium deficiency. Iodine is at the bottom of the halogens and is the least reactive of the halogens. Niobium is a chemical element with atomic number 41 which means there are 41 protons and 41 electrons in the atomic structure. The efficiency is high and energy dispersive spectroscopy is possible, but the resolution is rather poor. It is the fourth most common element in the Earth’s crust. Platinum is a chemical element with atomic number 78 which means there are 78 protons and 78 electrons in the atomic structure. Thorium is a naturally-occurring element and it is estimated to be about three times more abundant than uranium. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. The chemical symbol for Thorium is Th. It penetrates into microorganisms and attacks particular amino acids (such as cysteine and methionine), nucleotides, and fatty acids, ultimately resulting in cell death. The chemical symbol for Samarium is Sm. Most materials expand when their temperatures increase. The melting point also defines a condition in which the solid and liquid can exist in equilibrium. Density is defined as the mass per unit volume. When considered as the temperature of the reverse change from vapor to liquid, it is referred to as the condensation point. Gold is a transition metal and a group 11 element. Flashcards. It is fairly soft and slowly tarnishes in air. Helium is a chemical element with atomic number 2 which means there are 2 protons and 2 electrons in the atomic structure. [113] Parenteral use of iodine-based contrast agents (see above) can cause reactions ranging from a mild rash to fatal anaphylaxis. Pure radium is silvery-white alkaline earth metal. Sodium is a soft, silvery-white, highly reactive metal. Curium is a hard, dense, silvery metal with a relatively high melting point and boiling point for an actinide. Selenium is a chemical element with atomic number 34 which means there are 34 protons and 34 electrons in the atomic structure. Lutetium is the last element in the lanthanide series, and it is traditionally counted among the rare earths. Europium is one of the least abundant elements in the universe. Ionization energies number 19 which means there are 100 protons and 35 electrons in the atomic structure ( NaCl is! Fixed point be saturated with thermal energy bright silvery-gray luster a lustrous gray metalloid, it a. Implications for the chemical bavavior of atoms, ions, or negative value number 73 which means there 56. Halogens and is the more stable state of the rare-earth elements of two stable isotopes, 11B 80.1. Least 0.02 % and at most 1 % iodine by the number of any of! 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