The carbohydrates are used both as starting points for energy synthesis of other molecules and as means of storing energy that can be converted into ATP from cellular respiration. University. Stage One: Light Reactions In the light-dependent process, which takes place in the grana, the stacked membrane structure within chloroplasts, the direct energy of light helps the plant to make molecules that carry energy for utilization in the dark phase of photosynthesis. The algae in the ocean consume about _________ of the carbon dioxide released into the airs. What photosynthesis is most evident to us? a) chlorophyll, b) CO2, c) glucose, d) sunlight, e) ATP. a) thylakoid, b) stroma, c) lamella, d) mitochondrion, e) tracheid. a) water, b) carbon dioxide, c) ribulose bisphosphate, d) phosphoglyceraldehyde, e) phosphoglycerate, Four of the five answers listed below are participants in photosynthesis. The products of the light reactions necessary to drive the dark reactions are ______________. a) oxygen, b) light, c) carbon dioxide, d) chlorophyll, e) water. Describe how photosynthesis is a redox reaction. Which of the following compounds is involved in both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis? Compare cellular respiration and photosynthesis. a) fungus, b) carrot, c) earthworm, d) Iobster, e) parasite. Concluded that trees gain most of their mass by storing water. Has this changed? Rubisco is responsible for the addition of the carbon atoms needed for the formation of carbohydrates, but by itself, rubisco does not increase the amount of energy stored in the formed bonds. This accumulation on one side of the thylakoid membrane can then be used to power the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. Write. Organisms that derive their chemical energy either from the process of chemosynthesis or photosynthesis are classified as a) autotrophs, b) parasites, c) heterotrophs, d) saprophytes, e) mutualists. The light reactions of photosynthesis ____________ a) provide CO2 for the dark reactions. The resulting six-carbon compound is broken down into two three-carbon compounds, and the energy in ATP and NADPH is used to convert these molecules into G3P. These reactions actually have several names associated with them. In eukaryotic cells, photosynthesis takes place in the chloroplast. The most productive parts of the oceans are located in ______. What are the three main steps of the Calvin cycle? a) 10, b) 25, c) 35, d) 50, e) 75. How is ATP formed during photosynthesis? Yields NADPH as well as ATP. a) flow of electrons, b) synthesis of ATP through an H+ gradient, c) synthesis of NADPH, d) absorption of light by chlorophyll. a) changes to carotene, b) becomes agitated and moves rapidly, c) becomes radioactive, d) absorbs the energy and moves an electron to a higher energy state, e) becomes ionized. thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts a) photorespire, b) synthesize carbohydrate, c) fix carbon dioxide into PEP). 1st step of photosynthesis during which light energy is captured and used to synthesize ATP and NADPH light-independent reactions (aka Calvin cycle) 2nd step of photosynthesis during which CO2 is incorporated into a sugar molecule using ATP and NADPH produced during the light dep. The photon energizes an electron, and the electron leaves a hole behind. What does the sunlight do in the first step of photosynthesis? Faster Rates of Photosynthesis in Spinach Spinacia Oleracea Leaves as Light Intensity Surges Abstract Photosynthesis is a food making process that autotrophic. ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate: (RuBP) A molecule that completes the first and last steps of the Calvin cycle, which creates sugar out of carbon dioxide. a) C-1, b) C-2, c) C-3, d) C-4, e) C-5. process by which plants and some other organisms use light energy to convert carbon dioxide and water to carbon compounds. One of the three-carbon molecules of G3P leaves the cycle to become a part of a carbohydrate molecule. e) water. b) produce carbohydrate, c) provide the energy required for the dark reactions, d) use O2 in the production of ATP, e) include two of the above. Select the exception. All of the following take place in both photosynthesis and respiration except ______. (1) The transport of two electrons and two protons, by the diffusion of plastoquinone, from the stroma side of P2 to the luen side of the cytochrome complex and (2) the transfer of electrons within the cytochrome complex to a different molecule of plastoquinone, which results in additional protons being picked up from the stroma and subsequently released into the lumen. (ATP is needed to meet each cell's energy requirements which is why these organisms are not technically autotrophs.). The process of photosynthesis occurs in two steps. a) a membranes surrounding the chloroplast, b) thylakoids of the chloroplast, c) cytoplasm outside the chloroplast, d) stroma of the chloroplast, e) vacuole. For each six atoms of carbon dioxide fixed in the light-independent reactions, how many molecules of PGAL (phosphoglyceraldehyde) are produced? When light energy is absorbed by a leaf, the first result will be ____? The light reactions of photosynthesis take place within the ____________? The biochemical pathway used in photosynthesis to synthesize carbohydrates from CO2. The formation of glucose-6-phosphate (sugar phosphate) from two molecules of phosphoglyceraldehyde.. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. Three Main steps: (1) Carboxylation, in which CO2 is added to a 5-carbon molecule; (2) reduction, in which energy and electrons are transferred to the compounds formed in step 1; and (3) regeneration of the 5-carbon molecule needed for carboxylation. Flashcards. ATP is required for the regeneration of RuBP, raising the Calvin cycle's total energy requirements to two molecules of NADPH and three molecules of ATP for each molecule of CO2 incorporated by rubisco. Absorb some wavelengths of visible light. Select the exception. Some of the energy released during electron transport is used to hydrolyze ATP to ADP and inorganic phosphate. how many of each did you make? So to build carbohydrates using CO2 requires the input of energy, which comes from sunlight. Suppose you are studying a plant that is an unusual blue color which color.of light would it not use for photosynthesis. An enzyme that adds O2 to another molecule is called an oxygenase. (NADPH provides most of the energy incorporated in the bonds of Carbs). Consists of large, light absorbing "head" containing a magnesium atom at its center and a long hydrocarbon "tail". Which one of the following is not required for photosynthesis to proceed? a) reduction of NADP, b) phosphorylation of ADP to ATP, c) photolysis of water, d) oxidation of chlorophyll, e) reduction of chlorophyll. The Calvin Cycle. In the first step, CO2 is added to a 5-carbon sugar called ribulose 1, aka RuBP. If these accumulate in the cell, they would cause water to enter the cell by osmosis, which would cause damage to the cell. So, instead, excess carbohydrates are converted to starch, a storage form of carbohydrates. Specifically, it is located in the thylakoid membrane. Photosynthesis Lab report. a) there is a one-way flow of electrons from photosystem I to photosystem II, b) ATP alone is produced, c) hydrogen ions accumulate in the thylakoid compartments, d)only electrons are transferred to hydrogen acceptors, e) water is not involved in any of the reactions. Products of the Calvin cycle, or dark reactions, include _____? A) RuBP, b) FAD, c) oxaloacetate., d) ATP. ), Describe how Photorespiration leads to a net loss of energy and carbon. a) true, b) false. Sign in Register; Hide. CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what you're studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. Four of the five answers listed below are processes associated with light-independent reactions. In photosynthesis the reduction of CO2 to carbohydrate requires that both energy currency and a strong reducing substance (hydrogen donor) be in ample supply. In plants, photosynthesis is used to convert light energy from sunlight into chemical energy (glucose). a) electronflow, b) splitting of water molecules, c) synthesis of ATP, d) transfer of electrons to carrier molecules, e) establishment of an H+ ion gradient. For chlorophyll molecules with an intact chloroplast, energy can be transferred to an adjacent chlorophyll molecule instead of being lost as heat. Under the second step, the 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate molecules are reduced by gaining electrons. Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration, a) respiration is the exact reversal of the biochemical pathways of photosynthesis, b) Photosynthesis stores energy in complex organic molecules, and respiration releases it, c) Photosynthesis takes place only in the light, and respiration takes place only in the dark, d) Photosynthesis occurs only in plants and respiration only in animals, e) ATP molecules are produced in photosynthesis and used up in respiration. Key Concepts: Terms in this set (9) Photosynthesis. Small, reactively mobile compounds convey electrons between these protein complexes. Most of the energy is converted into heat; a small amount is remitted as light. What do the light harvesting reactions use to produce what? “Photosynthesis Steps:” During the process of photosynthesis, carbon dioxide enters through the stomata, water is absorbed by the root hairs from the soil and is carried to the leaves through the xylem vessels. (majority of photosynthetic organisms in ocean are unicellular, ½ carried out by single-celled marine eukaryotes, while other half is carried out by photosynthetic bacteria. a) corn, b) spinach, c) sugar cane, d) crabgrass. The first step in photosynthesis where the energy from light is used to split water, producing ATP & NADPH & releasing oxygen; produces oxygen (one of the by products of photosynthesis) Light Independent Reactions (Calvin Cycle) a) H2O, b) CO2, c) O2, d) Iipid, e) a and b above, Chemosynthetic bacteria may use which element as a hydrogen donor instead of water?a) potassium dibydrogen phosphate, b) sulfur, c) hydrogen sulfate, d) hydrogen chloride, e)hydrogen peroxide. A carbon-fixing system that precedes the Calvin-Benson cycle in some plants. a) RuBP, b) PEPA), c) citric acid, d) acetyl-CoA. A large number of reactions is needed to rearrange the carbon atoms from five 3-carbon triose phosphate molecules into three 5-carbon RuBP molecules. Photosystems also contain Accessory Pigments. The calvin cycle is a three step process that uses carbon dioxide to synthesize carbohydrates. Tropical rain forests, grasslands, and forests). Calvin cycle does not use sunlight directly → referred to as the 'dark' reactions of photosynthesis. This would leave ADP as a by-product. Ms_JMiller TEACHER. a) light-dependent reactions, b) chemosynthetic reactions, c) carbon dioxide fixation, d) Calvin-Benson cycle, e) C4 pathway. Four of the five answers listed below are autotrophic. In the reaction centers during photophosphorylation, _______________. Photosynthesis most evident to us: Carried out by land plants such as trees, grasses, shrubs. The indirect product of cyclic photophosphorylation is ________? Select the exception. An important electron and hydrogen acceptor in noncyclic photophosphorylation is _____. Start studying Steps of Photosynthesis. In a C4 plant, carbon dioxide is first combined with a compound called ________. a) oxygen, c light, b) carbon dioxide, d) chlorophyll, e) water. These protein pigment complexes, photosystems, are the functional and structural units that absorb light energy and use it to drive electron transport. Electrons pass between photosystem II and I. (very efficient), what happens when visible light is absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule. https://lms.uconn.edu/bbcswebdav/pid-2536245-dt-content-rid-38351167_1/courses/M1188-BIOL-1108-001.020/Photosynthesis%282%29.pdf. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. The consumption of O2 and release of CO2. 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