[122] At this date images of the targets with the onboard LORRI imager plus the Ralph telescope were only a few pixels in width. The instrument is equipped with a 1024×1024 pixel by 12-bits-per-pixel monochromatic CCD imager giving a resolution of 5 μrad (~1 arcsec). The yet smaller two moons, Kerberos and Styx were seen on photos taken on April 25. Because of the extreme distance from Pluto and the Kuiper belt, only one buffer load at those encounters can be saved. The craft's response that it was "awake" reached Earth on December 7, 2014, at 02:30 UTC. The Jupiter flyby provided a gravity assist that increased New Horizons' speed; the flyby also enabled a general test of New Horizons' scientific capabilities, returning data about the planet's atmosphere, moons, and magnetosphere. Images with a resolution of up to 30 m (98 ft) per pixel are expected. Details. A second object was planned to be observed in June 2015, and a third in September after the flyby; the team hoped to observe a dozen such objects through 2018. Because of the need to conserve fuel for possible encounters with Kuiper belt objects subsequent to the Pluto flyby, intentional encounters with objects in the asteroid belt were not planned. [103] During hibernation mode, the onboard computer monitored the probe's systems and transmitted a signal back to Earth: a "green" code if everything was functioning as expected or a "red" code if mission control's assistance was needed. 2019–2020: Downlink of data from the Arrokoth flyby. Predicted to take approximately 20 months. [110], While in hibernation mode in July 2012, New Horizons started gathering scientific data with SWAP, PEPSSI and VBSDC. [145], By March 30, 2016, New Horizons had reached the halfway point of transmitting this data. New Horizons was originally planned as a voyage to the only unexplored planet in the Solar System. It is the fifth space probe to achieve the escape velocity needed to leave the Solar System. It was the fastest man-made object ever launched from Earth. The Jupiter encounter also served as a shakedown and dress rehearsal for the Pluto encounter. August 2018 – March 2019: Distant observations of at least a dozen distant KBOs. Because Jupiter is much closer to Earth than Pluto, the communications link can transmit multiple loadings of the memory buffer; thus the mission returned more data from the Jovian system than it was expected to transmit from Pluto. The high-gain dish has a Cassegrain reflector layout, composite construction, of 2.1-meter (7 ft) diameter providing over 42 dBi of gain and a half-power beam width of about a degree. The right side image has been processed to remove the background starfield. The craft had a communication rate of 38 kbit/s at Jupiter; at Pluto's distance, a rate of approximately 1 kbit/s per transmitter was expected. FORD, FORD F-150 & F-150, FORD RANGER, FORD LIGHTNING, SUPERCREW, SUPERCAB, POWER STROKE, TRITON V8, ECOBOOST ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY. While in the inner Solar System, the spacecraft must prevent overheating, hence electronic activity is limited, power is diverted to shunts with attached radiators, and louvers are opened to radiate excess heat. The forward low-gain antenna is stacked atop the feed of the medium-gain antenna. [215][c], This article is about the space probe. The closest approach of the New Horizons spacecraft to Pluto occurred at 11:49 UTC on July 14, 2015, at a range of 12,472 km (7,750 mi) from the surface[135] and 13,658 km (8,487 mi) from the center of Pluto. [173], On August 28, 2015, 486958 Arrokoth (then known as (486958) 2014 MU69 and nicknamed Ultima Thule) (PT1) was chosen as the flyby target. [34] Pluto's satellites Nix and Hydra also have a connection with the spacecraft: the first letters of their names (N and H) are the initials of New Horizons. [53] The mission parameters and observation sequence had to be modified for the reduced wattage; still, not all instruments can operate simultaneously. Images obtained showing both bodies orbiting each other, distance 2.8 AU. ", "New Horizons' catches a wandering Kuiper Belt Object not far off", "New Horizons Sends Back First Science On Distant Kuiper Belt Object", "New Horizons Collects First Science on a Post-Pluto Object", "New Horizons Spies a Kuiper Belt Companion", "New Horizons Captures Record-Breaking Images in the Kuiper Belt", "HORIZONS Web-Interface, Ephemeris Type: VECTORS, Target Body: Asteroid (2012 HE85), Coordinate Origin: New Horizons Spacecraft [500@-98], Time Span: Start=2017-12-05, Stop=2017-12-06, Intervals=1", "NASA's New Horizons Will Visit Ultima Thule on New Year's Day – The probe that visited Pluto will study a mysterious icy world just after midnight. Estimates for the dimensions of these bodies are: Nix at 49.8 × 33.2 × 31.1 km (30.9 × 20.6 × 19.3 mi); Hydra at 50.9 × 36.1 × 30.9 km (31.6 × 22.4 × 19.2 mi); Kerberos at 19 × 10 × 9 km (11.8 × 6.2 × 5.6 mi); and Styx at 16 × 9 × 8 km (9.9 × 5.6 × 5.0 mi). Weiler stated that it was a result that "[his] administration was not going to fight". REX performed radiometry of the nightside. Most of the post-Jupiter voyage was spent in hibernation mode to preserve on-board systems, except for brief annual checkouts. [28] However, the APL, in addition to being supported by Pluto Kuiper Express developers at the Goddard Space Flight Center and Stanford University,[28] were at an advantage; they had recently developed NEAR Shoemaker for NASA, which had successfully entered orbit around 433 Eros earlier in the year, and would later land on the asteroid to scientific and engineering fanfare. [210][211], In April 2020, New Horizons was used, in conjunction with telescopes on Earth, to take pictures of nearby stars Proxima Centauri and Wolf 359; the images from each vantage point – over 4 billion miles (6.4 billion km) apart – were compared to produce "the first demonstration of an easily observable stellar parallax."[212]. [196] Closest approach occurred January 1, 2019, at 05:33 UTC[200] SCET at which point it was 43.4 AU from the Sun. Space jet racing : space speed 2020. The craft fully recovered within two days, with some data loss on Jupiter's. For those lacking a high-quality camera carry system for day trips and travel alike, the Ranger Sling is bound to be the gift of the season! The Cassini launch had been protested by multiple organizations, due to the risk of such a large amount of plutonium being released into the atmosphere in case of an accident. Meanwhile, Alice characterized the atmosphere, both by emissions of atmospheric molecules (airglow), and by dimming of background stars as they pass behind Pluto (occultation). This site uses cookies to provide you with the best experience possible. [189] New Horizons was planned to come within 3,500 km (2,200 mi) of Arrokoth, three times closer than the spacecraft's earlier encounter with Pluto. For other uses, see, First mission of the New Frontiers program; flyby reconnaissance of the dwarf planet Pluto and 486958 Arrokoth, Pluto's Charon-facing opposing hemisphere viewed on July 11, 2015, Distant view of Cape Canaveral during the launch of, Pluto Energetic Particle Spectrometer Science Investigation (PEPSSI), Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter (VBSDC), In-flight tests and crossing of Mars orbit. On September 24, 2005, the spacecraft arrived at the Kennedy Space Center on board a C-17 Globemaster III for launch preparations. Part of the reason for the delay between the gathering of and transmission of data is that all of the New Horizons instrumentation is body-mounted. [176][177], Aside from its flyby of 486958 Arrokoth, the extended mission for New Horizons calls for the spacecraft to conduct observations of, and look for ring systems around, between 25 and 35 different KBOs. [213] The Parker Solar Probe can also be measured as the fastest object, because of its orbital speed relative to the Sun at perihelion: 95.3 km/s (343,000 km/h; 213,000 mph). The. Read our Privacy Policy, Protect and organize your belongings on any ride with our advanced truck storage solutions. It was developed by the U.S. Department of Energy at the Materials and Fuels Complex, a part of the Idaho National Laboratory. NASA's Associate Administrator for the Science Mission Directorate Ed Weiler prompted Stern to lobby for the funding of New Horizons in hopes of the mission appearing in the Planetary Science Decadal Survey; a prioritized "wish list", compiled by the United States National Research Council, that reflects the opinions of the scientific community. [4] Engineered by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a team led by S. Alan Stern,[5] the spacecraft was launched in 2006 with the primary mission to perform a flyby study of the Pluto system in 2015, and a secondary mission to fly by and study one or more other Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) in the decade to follow, which became a mission to 486958 Arrokoth. [65], Solar Wind Around Pluto (SWAP) is a toroidal electrostatic analyzer and retarding potential analyzer (RPA), that makes up one of the two instruments comprising New Horizons' Plasma and high-energy particle spectrometer suite (PAM), the other being PEPSSI. [126] Pluto and Charon appear as a single overexposed object at the center. This Alice instrument is derived from another Alice aboard ESA's Rosetta spacecraft. [129] On April 15, 2015, Pluto was imaged showing a possible polar cap. Truck freight and oversize charges still apply unless otherwise noted, and can only be shipped to the lower 48 States. [137] The first details of the encounter were received the next day, but the download of the complete data set through the 2 kbps data downlink took just over 15 months,[16] and analysis of the data will take longer. [196] This download is expected to take 20 months at a data rate of 1–2 kilobits per second. [111] The first set of data was transmitted in January 2013 during a three-week activation from hibernation. [171][172] The spacecraft will also study almost 20 KBOs from afar. [26] Alice Bowman became Mission Operations Manager (MOM).[31]. [99], The flyby was the center of a four-month intensive observation campaign lasting from January to June. They were released on November 28, 2006. The dust counter is named for Venetia Burney, who first suggested the name "Pluto" at the age of 11. Before activating the other two instruments, ground tests were conducted to make sure that the expanded data gathering in this phase of the mission would not limit available energy, memory and fuel in the future and that all systems are functioning during the flyby. Probes are listed in chronological order of launch. VBSDC searched for dust, inferring meteoroid collision rates and any invisible rings. Still, its instruments were intended for small, dim targets, so they were scientifically useful on large, distant moons. [65] These public images do not contain the full dynamic range of brightness information available from the raw LORRI images files. 2017–2020: Observations of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs). [179] This KBO was again imaged by the LORRI instrument on April 7–8, 2016, from a distance of 111 million km (69 million mi; 0.74 AU). The probe approached Arrokoth along its rotational axis, which simplified trajectory correction maneuvers, saving fuel that could be used to target another KBO. Many subsystems and components have flight heritage from APL's CONTOUR spacecraft, which in turn had heritage from APL's TIMED spacecraft. Team leader Alan Stern stated the potential for a third flyby in the 2020s at the outer edges of the Kuiper belt. Titanium provides strength and thermal isolation. Knowledge about Jupiter benefited from the fact that New Horizons' instruments were built using the latest technology, especially in the area of cameras, representing a significant improvement over Galileo's cameras, which were modified versions of Voyager cameras, which, in turn, were modified Mariner cameras. Whether you're going on a long fishing trip and you need additional space, or you're just looking for a way to keep your tools organized throughout your work day, we have a wide range of, Sorry, please enter a valid US or CA postal code. Map any additional surfaces of outermost moons: Characterize the energetic particle environment at Pluto and Charon, Refine bulk parameters (radii, masses) and orbits of Pluto and Charon, Mapping the surface geology to learn how it formed and evolved, Mapping the 3-D surface topography and surface composition to learn how it is similar to and different from comets such as, Searching for any signs of activity, such as a cloud-like coma, Searching for, and studying, any satellites or rings. [33] Navigation is performed at various contractor facilities, whereas the navigational positional data and related celestial reference frames are provided by the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station through Headquarters NASA and JPL; KinetX is the lead on the New Horizons navigation team and is responsible for planning trajectory adjustments as the spacecraft speeds toward the outer Solar System. [29], In November 2001, New Horizons was officially selected for funding as part of the New Frontiers program. Find expert advice along with How To videos and articles, including instructions on how to make, cook, grow, or do almost anything. After passing Jupiter, New Horizons spent most of its journey towards Pluto in hibernation mode: redundant components as well as guidance and control systems were shut down to extend their life cycle, decrease operation costs and free the Deep Space Network for other missions. The first hibernation mode cycle started on June 28, 2007,[103] the second cycle began on December 16, 2008,[104] the third cycle on August 27, 2009,[105] and the fourth cycle on August 29, 2014, after a 10-week test. [96] The images, taken from a distance of approximately 4.2 billion km (2.6 billion mi; 28 AU), confirmed the spacecraft's ability to track distant targets, critical for maneuvering toward Pluto and other Kuiper belt objects. [75] The launch of New Horizons was originally scheduled for January 11, 2006, but was initially delayed until January 17, 2006, to allow for borescope inspections of the Atlas V's kerosene tank. January 10, 2007: Navigation exercise near. We're sorry, zip can't be updated at this time. [100], One of the main goals during the Jupiter encounter was observing its atmospheric conditions and analyzing the structure and composition of its clouds. "[46], Some of the questions the mission attempts to answer are: What is Pluto's atmosphere made of and how does it behave? SALEEN IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF SALEEN INCORPORATED. Its goal is to determine the composition of Pluto's atmosphere. [35], In addition to the science equipment, there are several cultural artifacts traveling with the spacecraft. On January 9, New Horizons returned to a spin-stabilized mode, to prepare to send the remainder of its data back to Earth. [124][125] New Horizons was more than 203 million kilometers (126,000,000 mi) away from Pluto when it began taking the photos, which showed Pluto and its largest moon, Charon. The remaining three targeting maneuvers took place on October 25, October 28, and November 4, 2015. This temperature differential requires insulation, and isolation from the rest of the structure. PT2 was out of the running before the Pluto flyby. [178] In addition, it will continue to study the gas, dust and plasma composition of the Kuiper belt before the mission extension ends in 2021. New Horizons has both spin-stabilized (cruise) and three-axis stabilized (science) modes controlled entirely with hydrazine monopropellant. However, despite the large population of KBOs, many factors limited the number of possible targets. Easy online ordering or call etrailer.com at 800-2 The "tertiary objectives" were desired. [83], The launch was dedicated to the memory of launch conductor Daniel Sarokon, who was described by space program officials as one of the most influential people in the history of space travel. DODGE, DODGE RAM, RAM TRUCKS, RAM 1500, SRT/10, 1500 SLT PLUS, 1500 SLT, ST, LARAMIE, DAYTONA, MEGA CAB, SLT/SPORT/TRX, SLT/TRX, R/T, SPORT, LARAMIE LONGHORN, TRADESMAN HEAVY DUTY, TRADESMAN/EXPRESS, TRADESMAN, HFE, REBEL, LONGHORN ARE REGISTERED TRADEMARKS OF FIAT CHRYSLER AUTOMOBILES (FCA). [204], After the spacecraft's passage by Arrokoth, the instruments continue to have sufficient power to be operational until the 2030s. March 20, 2015: NASA invites the general public to suggest names for surface features that may be discovered on Pluto and Charon. [130], On July 4, 2015, New Horizons experienced a software anomaly and went into safe mode, preventing the spacecraft from performing scientific observations until engineers could resolve the problem. The cameras determined their positions, acting as "reverse optical navigation". An objective to measure any magnetic field of Pluto was dropped. Besides the low data rate, Pluto's distance also causes a latency of about 4.5 hours (one-way). The BearVault BV500 container features simple access, light weight and large volume. [27] The New Horizons proposal was one of five that were officially submitted to NASA. Research started at the end of 2020. Discover Top Blogs & Best Websites in 2019. Effective collecting area is 0.125 m2 (1.35 sq ft). New Horizons used LORRI to take its first photographs of Jupiter on September 4, 2006, from a distance of 291 million kilometers (181 million miles). Because the flight path was determined by the Pluto flyby, and the probe only had 33 kilograms of hydrazine propellant remaining, the object to be visited needed to be within a cone of less than a degree's width extending from Pluto. Searches will be conducted for orbiting moonlets, a coma, rings, and the surrounding environment. Unlike the Pioneers and Voyagers, the radio dish is also enclosed in blankets that extend to the body. April 30, 2021: End of the current extended mission. Coincidentally the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station was where the photographic plates were taken for the discovery of Pluto's moon Charon; and the Naval Observatory is itself not far from the Lowell Observatory where Pluto was discovered. These are small enough to fit on a single card. Additional post launch delta-v of over 290 m/s (1,000 km/h; 650 mph) is provided by a 77 kg (170 lb) internal tank. [16] Having completed its flyby of Pluto,[17] New Horizons then maneuvered for a flyby of Kuiper belt object 486958 Arrokoth (then nicknamed Ultima Thule),[18][19][20] which occurred on January 1, 2019,[21][22] when it was 43.4 AU from the Sun. TCM-1 was accurate enough to permit the cancellation of TCM-2, the second of three originally scheduled corrections. However, it is not the fastest spacecraft to leave the Solar System. The four largest moons of Jupiter were in poor positions for observation; the necessary path of the gravity-assist maneuver meant that New Horizons passed millions of kilometers from any of the Galilean moons. News Reader. The structure is designed to act as shielding, reducing electronics errors caused by radiation from the RTG. Further delays related to low cloud ceiling conditions downrange, and high winds and technical difficulties—unrelated to the rocket itself—prevented launch for a further two days. The mission's principal investigator is Alan Stern of the Southwest Research Institute (formerly NASA Associate Administrator). Each were at distances from the Sun of ranging from 43 to 44 AU, which would put the encounters in the 2018–2019 period. [45] "By way of comparison, New Horizons gathered 5,000 times as much data at Pluto as Mariner did at the Red Planet. At $500, the Ice Pack is the most expensive model on this list by far, and it does have shortcomings. October 22 – November 4, 2015: Trajectory correction maneuver. Closest approach occurred at 05:43:40 UTC at 2.305 million km, 21.219 km/s. Arrokoth will be the most distant object ever visited by a spacecraft", "A Journey Into the Solar System's Outer Reaches, Seeking New Worlds to Explore", "New Horizons extended mission target selected", "New Horizons Files Flight Plan for 2019 Flyby", "New Horizons Completes Targeting Maneuvers", "On Track: New Horizons Carries Out Third KBO Targeting Maneuver", "NASA's New Horizons probe woke up today to prep for its next deep space flyby", "New Horizons Wakes for Historic Kuiper Belt Flyby", "New Horizons prepares for encounter with 2014 MU69", "Ultima in View: NASA's New Horizons Makes First Detection of Kuiper Belt Flyby Target", "Plot thickens as New Horizons moves within year of next flyby", "Maneuver Moves New Horizons Spacecraft toward Next Potential Target", "New Horizons Successfully Explores Ultima Thule", "What to Expect When New Horizons Visits 2014 MU69, Ultima Thule, And When We Will Get Pictures", "New Horizons May Make Yet Another Flyby After Ultima Thule", "New Horizons planning additional extended missions", http://pluto.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/PI-Perspectives.php?page=piPerspective_11_04_2020, "Hi, I am Alan Stern, head of NASA's New Horizons spacecraft on its way to explore Ultima Thule, a Kuiper Belt object one billion miles beyond Pluto! [26] New Horizons was based largely on Stern's work since Pluto 350 and involved most of the team from Pluto Kuiper Express. The command and data handling software was updated to address the problem of computer resets. [16][147], At a distance of 43 AU (6.43 billion km; 4.00 billion mi) from the Sun and 0.4 AU (60 million km; 37 million mi) from 486958 Arrokoth as of November 2018,[148] New Horizons is heading in the direction of the constellation Sagittarius[149] at 14.10 km/s (8.76 mi/s; 2.97 AU/a) relative to the Sun. New Horizons' body forms a triangle, almost 0.76 m (2.5 ft) thick. Haven't tried the BV450 yet, but suspect four days will be about tops. The cost of the mission (including spacecraft and instrument development, launch vehicle, mission operations, data analysis, and education/public outreach) is approximately $700 million over 15 years (2001–2016). [199] The majority of the science data was collected within 48 hours of the closest approach in a phase called the Inner Core. This proved to be wrong as images obtained by New Horizons on July 14 and sent back to Earth in October 2015 revealed that Kerberos was smaller in size, 19 km (12 mi) across with a highly reflective surface suggesting the presence of relatively clean water ice similarly to the rest of Pluto's smaller moons. That of Tvashtar reached an altitude of up to 330 km (210 mi). For viewing on public web sites the 12-bit per pixel LORRI images are converted to 8-bit per pixel JPEG images. [112], Other possible targets were Neptune trojans. It is expected that the mission will be extended further if the spacecraft remains operational. [149] Voyager 1 attained greater hyperbolic excess velocity than New Horizons thanks to gravity assists by Jupiter and Saturn. BV450 and 500 work great, but … Blogs, RSS, Youtube channels, Podcast, Magazines, etc. [23][24], The Ralph telescope, 75 mm[69] in aperture, is one of two photographic instruments that make up New Horizons' Pluto Exploration Remote Sensing Investigation (PERSI), with the other being the Alice instrument. e.g. New Horizons has been called "the fastest spacecraft ever launched"[6] because it left Earth at 16.26 kilometers per second (58,536 km/h; 36,373 mph), faster than any other spacecraft. After an intense campaign to gain support for New Horizons, the Planetary Science Decadal Survey of 2003–2013 was published in the summer of 2002. 2020 AMERICANTRUCKS.COM. This is half the rotation period of the Pluto–Charon system and allowed imaging of all sides of both bodies. New Horizons' best spatial resolution of the small satellites is 330 m per pixel (1,080 ft/px) at Nix, 780 m/px (2,560 ft/px) at Hydra, and approximately 1.8 km/px (1.1 mi/px) at Kerberos and Styx. ", "New Horizons is Still Only Halfway Through Its Download from Pluto", "New Horizons Returns Last Bits of 2015 Flyby Data to Earth", "It's Official! ResumeMatch - Sample Resume, Resume Template, Resume Example, Resume Builder,Resume linkedin,Resume Grade,File Convert. On July 14, 2015, at 11:49 UTC, it flew 12,500 km (7,800 mi) above the surface of Pluto,[12][13] making it the first spacecraft to explore the dwarf planet. January 11, 2006: Primary launch window opened. The probe's trajectory to Pluto passed near Neptune's trailing Lagrange point ("L5"), which may host hundreds of bodies in 1:1 resonance. After the overload was detected, the spacecraft performed as designed: it switched from the primary computer to the backup computer, entered safe mode, and sent a distress call back to Earth. LORRI and MVIC attempted to overlap their respective coverage areas to form stereo pairs. The aft low-gain antenna is mounted within the launch adapter at the rear of the spacecraft. I've been able to get eight days of food and other smelly items into the BV500--with a lot of work and repacking. The received signal level (RSL) using one, un-arrayed Deep Space Network antenna with 72 dBi of forward gain equals −148 dBm. *Please see Silverado parts pages for any exceptions. The science observations lost because of the anomaly were judged to have no impact on the mission's main objectives and minimal impact on other objectives. The exposure time was too short to see Pluto's smaller, much fainter, moons. The heat from the RTG adds warmth to the spacecraft while it is in the outer Solar System. [88], During the week of February 20, 2006, controllers conducted initial in-flight tests of three onboard science instruments, the Alice ultraviolet imaging spectrometer, the PEPSSI plasma-sensor, and the LORRI long-range visible-spectrum camera. The RTG, model "GPHS-RTG", was originally a spare from the Cassini mission. By the fall of 2014, a possible fourth target, 2014 MT69, had been eliminated by follow-up observations. The total velocity change of these two corrections was about 18 meters per second (65 km/h; 40 mph). ROUSH IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF ROUSH ENTERPRISES, INC. AMERICANTRUCKS HAS NO AFFILIATION WITH THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY, ROUSH ENTERPRISES, SALEEN, THE GENERAL MOTORS COMPANY OR FIAT CHRYSLER AUTOMOBILES. The booster was replaced with an identical unit, rather than inspecting and requalifying the original. [196], New Horizons made its first detection of Arrokoth on August 16, 2018, from a distance of 107 million mi (172 million km). Catalog these TERMS are used to measure the spacecraft remains operational 4-sided titanium mount resembling a gray pyramid stepstool. Are operated at Clyde Tombaugh science Operations Center ( T-SOC ) in diameter 19:04:43 and! April 25 to measure the spacecraft speeds up and slows down, the public helped to scan telescopic images possible! 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Annual checkouts Jupiter 's magnetosphere, New Horizons took only nine hours to pass the Moon 's is. 19, 2006: first image of Pluto the moons ' discoverers these..., 2019-2021 Chevy Chevy Silverado Tool Boxes & Bed storage radiative heat transfer with..., adjusting the spacecraft 's velocity by about 1.16 m/s ( 4.2 km/h ; 40 mph ). 57. 214 ] the download of data from the approaching probe on any ride with advanced... Activated for about two months a year so that the instruments could be calibrated and the surrounding environment and..., for a total of four computers their respective coverage areas to form stereo pairs nm ) over!