The autocrine-paracrine signaling diverges from the intracellular signaling distal to MEK/ERK. Gallic acid conjugated with gold nanoparticles: Antibacterial activity and mechanism of action on foodborne pathogens. It is a white solid, although samples are typically brown owing to partial oxidation. The minimum teratogenic dose (GA 6 μM), if administered to humans, corresponds to 1.02 mg/kg of body weight. ); kasia.pustus@wp.pl (K.P.) Yes Introduction. The sizes of RBCs obtained from the various groups were similar; implying that in vivo lysis of erythrocytes is closely associated with the inherent properties of GA and not with osmolysis. Gallic acid is immunostimulatory in function by enhancing the phagocytes and lymphocytes, the major innate immune cells. Yes It is found both as a free state and as a constituent of tannins, namely, gallotannin. Calibration plots were found to be near to linearity with between 10 and 75 μg gallic acid on the plate when the ratios of the peak area of the acid to the internal standard were between 0.3 and 1.5, although in practice ratios of areas between 0.5 and 1.25 (corresponding to gallic acid between 25 and 62.5 μg) were adopted in the analytical method. Following the study of Niho et al. Table 1 Anticancer Mechanisms of Gallic Acid in Different Experimental Models. Additionally, the treatment of PC12 cells with GA results in the upregulation of phospho-JNK expression [17]. No, Is the Subject Area "Tea" applicable to this article? Gallic acid derivatives have also been found in a number of phytomedicines with diverse biological and pharmacological activities, including radical scavenging, interfering with the cell signaling pathways and apoptosis of cancer cells. All other reagents were purchased from Invitrogen (Invitrogen Life Technologies, CA, USA) unless otherwise stated. Organs were fixed in 10% formalin in PBS (pH 7.4) at 4°C for 24 h and processed for paraffin embedding. here. The results revealed 10 μM GA to be the optimal dose, at which the peak damage rate of 39.4 ± 2.9% was observed (Table 1). GA at low concentrations ≤ 2 μM behaved similarly to the control. Introduction. In a previous study, GA-treated F344 rats exhibited significant body loss [21]. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g003. This included official approval from the Animal Ethics Committee of Changhua University of Education, the level of expected mortality was considered. No, Is the Subject Area "Embryos" applicable to this article? Is the Subject Area "Hemorrhage" applicable to this article? An analysis of variance and Tukey’s test were used to analyze the variance and identify significant differences between paired means. The homogenate was centrifuged at 12000 × g for 20 min at 4°C, and the supernatant was collected as tissue sample lysate. [38] also compared its concentration in the ethyl acetate, ethanol, and methanol extracts of C. volubile leaves, with the ethyl acetate extract having the least concentration. We treated the embryos with GA on day 2.5 after fertilization, and each subgroup was observed on days 5.5, 9.5, and 21 (day-1 chick, HH Stage 46), respectively. Compare Products: Select up to 4 products. According to the data of Lin et al. demonstrated in vitro that glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient subjects are vulnerable to chemical-induced hemolysis if exposed to oxidative agents [11]. Previously, we established the ovo chicken embryo model (CEM) to investigate the teratogenicity of valproic acid (VPA) [8]. GA at doses ≥ 1.02 mg/kg of body weight potentially causes characteristic cerebral hemolysis and liposis in the musculi longissimus cervicis. GA at 2 μM did not exhibit cytotoxicity. The damaged tissue was primarily cervical muscle (musculi longissimus cervicis), as evidenced by liposis, Zenker’s necrosis, and hemolysis. A 2-mm2 hole was aseptically drilled through each egg shell, using a pin drill. Hence, a large portion of ferric ions might remain in a free ion state, which, in turn, can accelerate the coupling of Harber-Weiss [46] and Fenton reactions and enhance the cyclic hydroxyl free radical oxidative stress on cell proliferation [17] (Fig 6; see the Supplement). PPARα is expressed in liver, kidney, heart, muscle adipose tissue, and others [36]. Gallic acid is mainly used as a synthetic intermediate for the production of pyrogallol and gallic acid esters used in the food and pharmaceutical industries (Deschamps and Lebeault, 1984). The red blood cells were directly obtained from day-1 chicks treated with various gallic acid concentrations. Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine; Research output: Contribution to journal › Article. Considering the use of this species in ethnomedicine, its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, our study investigated the antiulcerogenic activity of the Spondias mombin ethanolic extract (SmEE), isolated gallic acid (GA), and ellagic acid (EA) and in association between gallic acid and ellagic acid. One hundred and eighty day-1 fertilized Leghorn eggs, each weighing 50 ± 2.5 g, were provided by Qing-Dang Chicken Farm (Taichung, Taiwan). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.t003. [37] reported its presence in the phenolic rich extract of C. volubile leaves. It also reduces ACF proliferation and/or progression exerting chemopreventive activity against colon cancer.158 Ellagic acid may be considered in a promising new class of cancer chemopreventive and therapeutic agents. As seen, the RBC’s that were elongated wgen ready to collapse (see pictures at 6 and 10 μM GA). Lower row: back view. It has a role as an astringent, a cyclooxygenase 2 inhibitor, a plant metabolite, an antioxidant, an antineoplastic agent, a human xenobiotic metabolite, an EC 1.13.11.33 (arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor and an apoptosis inducer.It is a conjugate acid of a gallate. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0119516.g004. Reactions of gallic acid (GA) with alkyl peroxy radicals (methylperoxy, ethylperoxy, iso-propylperoxy, and tert-butylperoxy) were simulated using density functional theory. Gallic acid is a well known antioxidant compounds which has neuroprotective actions in different models of neurodegeneration, neurotoxicity and oxidative stress. Staphylococcus aureus suspended in 4 mmol/L gallic acid was exposed to blue light of a LED at 400 nm. The funder had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Yes Further studies in this direction are needed because, from an economical point of view, as the chemical process is not expensive, a biotechnological process has to be more selective and produce better yields. Gallic acid is a trihydroxybenzoic acid in which the hydroxy groups are at positions 3, 4, and 5. The GA dose required to induce teratogenesis was ≥ 6 μM (1.02 mg/kg), which can be easily consumed by pregnant women in typical teas such as Chinese Pu-’Er and Chinese black teas, indicating a potential risk to human fetuses. Ayurvedic herb ) the Ras/Raf-mediated growth inhibition and differentiation induced by GA at higher doses, GA has many properties. 14 ] paired means risk can be at least partially attributed to the fetus concentrations ≤ μM. The teratogenic potential of gallic acid is a stronger prooxidant than quercetin [ 16, 23 24... Fit for your Research every time level 4.25 mg/L or 25 μM autocrine-paracrine signaling diverges from the Animal Committee. 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