2 vertices: all (2) connected (1) 3 vertices: all (4) connected (2) 4 vertices: all (11) connected (6) 5 vertices: all (34) connected (21) 6 vertices: all (156) connected (112) 7 vertices: all (1044) connected (853) 8 vertices: all (12346) connected (11117) 9 vertices: all (274668) connected (261080) 10 vertices: all (31MB gzipped) (12005168) connected (30MB gzipped) (11716571) 11 vertices: all (2514MB gzipped) (1018997864) connected (2487MB gzipped)(1006700565) The above graphs, and many varieties of the… (f)Show that every non-increasing nite sequence of nonnegative integers whose terms sum to an even number is the degree sequence of a graph (where loops are allowed). PDF | In 2010 it was proved that a 3-regular matchstick graph of girth 5 must consist at least of 30 vertices. Illustrate your proof Robertson. MathJax reference. The following table contains numbers of connected planar regular graphs with given number of vertices and degree. Daniel is a new contributor to this site. It only takes a minute to sign up. We observe that a complete graph with n vertices is n−1-regular, and has n 2 = n(n−1) 2 edges. A graph with N vertices can have at max nC2 edges.3C2 is (3!)/((2!)*(3-2)!) True False 1.3) A graph on n vertices with n - 1 must be a tree. 5. There is (up to isomorphism) exactly one 4-regular connected graphs on 5 vertices. Why battery voltage is lower than system/alternator voltage. How many edge deletions make a $4$-regular graph on $7$ vertices planar? The given Graph is regular. 8. No graph with maximum degree 5 and diameter 2 can have more than 26 = 1 + 5 + 5 * 4 vertices simply by counting a vertex's neighbours and its neighbour's neighbours. 66. Here, Both the graphs G1 and G2 have same number of vertices. It has 19 vertices and 38 edges. Regular Graph: A graph is called regular graph if degree of each vertex is equal. If Z is a vertex, an edge, or a set of vertices or edges of a graph G, then we denote by GnZ the graph obtained from G by deleting Z. Regular graphs of girth 5 from elliptic semiplanes, Submitted. Hence, the top verter becomes the rightmost verter. A graph with 4 vertices that is not planar. Therefore, m+m0 6n 12: We then have n(n 1) 2 = m+m0 6n 12 )n2 13n+24 0 )n<11: (4)Let Gbe a simple connected planar graph with less than 12 vertices. of the two graphs is the complete graph on nvertices. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Hence all the given graphs are cycle graphs. Ans: C10. 11(b) and 11(c), respectively. Definition 2.11. m;n:Regular for n= m, n. (e)How many vertices does a regular graph of degree four with 10 edges have? Previous question Next question Get more help from Chegg . of the two graphs is the complete graph on nvertices. a 4-regular graph of girth 5. a) True b) False View Answer. A k-regular graph ___. By clicking “Post Your Answer”, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy. EXAMPLES: The Bucky Ball is planar. Similarly, below graphs are 3 Regular and 4 Regular respectively. Hint: What is a regular graph? Here, Both the graphs G1 and G2 have different number of edges. There exist exactly four (5,5)-cages. New contributor. In a simple graph, the number of edges is equal to twice the sum of the degrees of the vertices. Mathematics Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for people studying math at any level and professionals in related fields. How do I hang curtains on a cutout like this? A digraph is connected if the underlying graph is connected. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. So, the graph is 2 Regular. How can I quickly grab items from a chest to my inventory? However, the graphs are not isomorphic. 4 vertices - Graphs are ordered by increasing number of edges in the left column. De nition 4 (d-regular Graph). Figure 2: A pair of flve vertex graphs, both connected and simple. How can we prove that a 5-regular graph with ten vertices is non planar? 12. We say a graph is d-regular if every vertex has degree d De nition 5 (Bipartite Graph). (5 points) A tournament is a directed graph such that if u and v are vertices in the graph, exactly one of (u,v) and (v,u) is an edge of the graph. A connected simple planar graph with 5 regions and 8 vertices, each of degree 3. 11 vertices - Graphs are ordered by increasing number of edges in the left column. Number of vertices in graph G1 = 4; Number of vertices in graph G2 = 4 . By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. (a) A signal f on a random sensor network with 64 vertices. A trail is a walk with no repeating edges. However, notice that graph C also has four vertices and three edges, and yet as a graph it seems di↵erent from the first two. Prove that Ghas a vertex … https://doi.org/10.1016/j.disc.2012.05.020. This graph is a 3-regular 60-vertex planar graph. Graph II has 4 vertices with 4 edges which is forming a cycle ‘pq-qs-sr-rp’. That is, there are no edges uv with u;v 2V 1 or u;v 2V 2. What is the size of a 5-regular graph on 12 vertices? Draw all of them. An -vertex-antimagic edge labeling (or an -VAE labeling, for short) of is a bijective mapping from the edge set of a graph to the set of integers with the property that the vertex-weights form an arithmetic sequence starting from and having common difference , where and are two positive integers, and the vertex-weight is the sum of the labels of all edges incident to the vertex. In this paper we obtain (q+3−u)-regular graphs of girth 5, for 1≤u≤q−1 with fewer vertices than previously known ones, for each prime q≥13, performing operations of reductions and amalgams on the Levi graph Bq of an elliptic semiplane of type C. We also obtain a 13-regular graph of girth 5 on 236 vertices from B11 using the same technique. A planar graph with 10 vertices. (5 points, 1 point for each) True/False Questions 1.1) In a simple graph on n vertices, the degree of a vertex is at most n - 1. Hence, the top vertex becomes the rightmost vertex. graph. The unique (4,5)-cage graph, ie. The picture of such graph is below. Regular GraphRegular Graph A simple graphA simple graph GG=(=(VV,, EE)) is calledis called regularregular if every vertex of this graph has theif every vertex of this graph has the same degree. Graphs; Discrete Math: In a simple graph, every pair of vertices can belong to at most one edge and from this, we can estimate the maximum number of edges for a simple graph with {eq}n {/eq} vertices. 9. Planar graph with 9 vertices and 3 components property Hot Network Questions Can I (a US citizen) travel from Puerto Rico to Miami with just a copy of my passport? Regular polygons with 11, 13, 17, and 29 edges; small circles placed ... out the vertices a, b, c, and d, and move in the remaining vertices. Solution: It is not possible to draw a 3-regular graph of five vertices. (6 points) How many non-isomorphic connected bipartite simple graphs are there with four vertices? Asking for help, clarification, or responding to other answers. Let R2.n be a 2-regular graph with n vertices… View Thus, m+m0= n 2 = n(n 1) 2: By Corollary 7.15 in the text, m;m0 3n 6. True False 1.4) Every graph has a spanning tree. isomorphic graphs with 4 edges, 1 graph with 5 edges and 1 graph with 6 edges. Regular Graph. The windowed graph Fourier atom g 27, 11 is shown in the vertex and graph spectral domains in Fig. Graphs; Discrete Math: In a simple graph, every pair of vertices can belong to at most one edge and from this, we can estimate the maximum number of edges for a simple graph with {eq}n {/eq} vertices. An evolutionary algorithm for generating integral graphs is described. So, Condition-02 violates. What is the earliest queen move in any strong, modern opening? Is there a $4$-regular planar self-complementary graph with $9$ vertices and $18$ edges? Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. 6. Wie zeige ich dass es auch sicher nicht mehr gibt? Question 11 5 pts We call a regular graph, k-regular provided all n vertices in the graph are of degree k. We will denote it Rk,n. Prove that Ghas a … The 3-regular graph must have an even number of vertices. ... 1.11 Consider the graphs G 1 = (V 1;E 1) and G 2 = (V 2;E 2). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Let G be a plane graph, that is, a planar drawing of a planar graph. Altogether, we have 11 non-isomorphic graphs on 4 vertices (3) Recall that the degree sequence of a graph is the list of all degrees of its vertices, written in non-increasing order. The files are split in different categories so, if you scroll down, you will find a file containing the connected 6-regular vertex-transitive graphs. 65. Was sind "Fertiges" ? The largest such graph, K4, is planar. Thus, m+m0= n 2 = n(n 1) 2: By Corollary 7.15 in the text, m;m0 3n 6. 2)A bipartite graph of order 6. Use polar coordinates (angle:distance).For a pentagon, the angles differ by 360/5 = 72 degrees. Regular graph with 10 vertices- 4,5 regular graph - YouTube How many edges are there? b. a) True b) False View Answer. When embedded on a sphere, its 12 pentagon and 20 hexagon faces are arranged exactly as the sections of a soccer ball. For instance the 5-regular graphs with girth 5 and minimal number of vertices were generated in less than one hour. For example, although graphs A and B is Figure 10 are technically di↵erent (as their vertex sets are distinct), in some very important sense they are the “same” Figure 10: Two isomorphic graphs A and B and a non-isomorphic graph C; each have four vertices and three edges. A complete bipartite graph is a graph whose vertices can be A regular directed graph must also satisfy the stronger condition that the indegree and outdegree of each vertex are equal to each other. True False 1.2) A complete graph on 5 vertices has 20 edges. I would be very grateful for help! A graph is called K regular if degree of each vertex in the graph is K. Example: Consider the graph below: Degree of each vertices of this graph is 2. Let G be a plane graph, that is, a planar drawing of a planar graph. The empty graph has no edges at all. My answer 8 Graphs : For un-directed graph with any two nodes not having more than 1 edge. A complete graph of ‘n’ vertices is represented as K n. Examples- 11. A graph is r-regular if all vertices have degree r. A graph G = (V;E) is bipartite if there are two non-empty subsets V ... A 3-regular graph of order at least 5. graph. Definition − A graph (denoted as G = (V, E)) consists of a non-empty set of vertices or nodes V and a set of edges E. Are they isomorphic? rev 2021.1.8.38287, The best answers are voted up and rise to the top, Mathematics Stack Exchange works best with JavaScript enabled, Start here for a quick overview of the site, Detailed answers to any questions you might have, Discuss the workings and policies of this site, Learn more about Stack Overflow the company, Learn more about hiring developers or posting ads with us, Proving that a 5-regular graph with ten vertices is non planar, Restrictions on the faces of a $3$-regular planar graph, A 4-Regular graph with 7 vertices is non planar. Ex 5.11.1 Connectivity in digraphs turns out to be a little more complicated than connectivity in graphs. Condition-02: Number of edges in graph G1 = 5; Number of edges in graph G2 = 6 . Can you legally move a dead body to preserve it as evidence? Which of the following statements is false? So, Condition-01 satisfies. Therefore, m+m0 6n 12: We then have n(n 1) 2 = m+m0 6n 12 )n2 13n+24 0 )n<11: (4)Let Gbe a simple connected planar graph with less than 12 vertices. 3)A complete bipartite graph of order 7. Windowed graph Fourier transform example. a. Ex 5.11.1 Connectivity in digraphs turns out to be a little more complicated than connectivity in graphs. Then: n(k,5) ≥ k2 +3. The list does not contain all graphs with 11 vertices. Is there any difference between "take the initiative" and "show initiative"? The graph would have 12 edges, and hence v − e + r = 8 − 12 + 5 = 1, which is not possible. There is no closed formula (that anyone knows of), but there are asymptotic results, due to Bollobas, see A probabilistic proof of an asymptotic formula for the number of labelled regular graphs (1980) by B Bollobás (European Journal of Combinatorics) or Random Graphs (by the selfsame Bollobas). Its vertices and edges correspond precisely to the carbon atoms and bonds in buckminsterfullerene. 11.3 Some Common Graphs Some graphs come up so frequently that they have names. For the empty fields the number is not yet known (to me). To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Corollary 2.2.4 A k-regular graph with n vertices has nk / 2 edges. => 3. There exist exactly four (5,5)-cages. Kommentiert 17 Dez 2015 von -Wolfgang-Auto-Korrekt :D. Es sind die Vertices aus der Überschrift gemeint. In the given graph the degree of every vertex is 3. advertisement. I went ahead and checked Gordon's data. Ich soll zeigen dass es für einen Graphen mit 4 Fertiges GENAU 11 Isomorphieklassen gibt. The given Graph is regular. (The underlying graph of a digraph is produced by removing the orientation of the arcs to produce edges, that is, replacing each arc $(v,w)$ by an edge $\{v,w\}$. This page is modeled after the handy wikipedia page Table of simple cubic graphs of “small” connected 3-regular graphs, where by small I mean at most 11 vertices.. The list does not contain all graphs with 11 vertices. From the bottom left vertex, moving clockwise, the vertices in the pentagon shape are labeled: a, b, c, e, and f. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Let G(N,p) be an Erdos-Renyi graph, where N is the number of vertices, and p is the probability that two distinct vertices form an edge. A graph is r-regular if every vertex has degree r. Definition 2.10. 1) K2,3 is the complete bipartite graph with two partitions of vertex set have 2 and 3 vertices. Wheel Graph. Why can't a 4-regular graph be both planar AND bipartite. Illustrate your proof Solution: By the handshake theorem, 2 10 = jVj4 so jVj= 5. Such graphs exist on all orders except 3, 5 and 7. 5.2 Graph Isomorphism Most properties of a graph do not depend on the particular names of the vertices. Families of small regular graphs of girth 5. Out of the 80 connected 6-valent vertex-transitive graphs on 20 vertices, only 5 are … What is the right and effective way to tell a child not to vandalize things in public places? So you can compute number of Graphs with 0 edge, 1 edge, 2 edges and 3 edges. $\begingroup$ hi @Charlie, the graph with 10 vertices and 4 loops is the largest possible non-simple planar graph with diameter 2. Find the order and size of the complement graph G. When a microwave oven stops, why are unpopped kernels very hot and popped kernels not hot? Bipartite Graph: A graph G=(V, E) is called a bipartite graph if its vertices V can be partitioned into two subsets V 1 and V 2 such that each … A 3-regular graph with 10 vertices and 15 edges. In the mathematical field of graph theory, the Clebsch graph is either of two complementary graphs on 16 vertices, a 5-regular graph with 40 edges and a 10-regular graph with 80 edges. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. By Eulers formula there exist no such graphs with degree greater than 5. A digraph is connected if the underlying graph is connected. A k-regular graph ___. (f)Show that every non-increasing nite sequence of nonnegative integers whose terms sum to an even number is the degree sequence of a graph (where loops are allowed). Both have the same degree sequence. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. In general, the best way to answer this for arbitrary size graph is via Polya’s Enumeration theorem. Daniel Daniel. ... Graph III has 5 vertices with 5 edges which is forming a cycle ‘ik-km-ml-lj-ji’. Create the Bucky Ball graph. 11. Figure 11: An undirected graph has 6 vertices, a through f. 5 vertices are in the form of a regular pentagon, rotated 90 degrees clockwise. A graph is r-regular if all vertices have degree r. A graph G = (V;E) is bipartite if there are two non-empty subsets V 1 and V 2 such that V = V 1 [V 2, V 1 \V 2 = ;and, for every edge uv 2E, we have u 2V 1 and v 2V 2, or vice versa. Circ(8;1,3) is the graph K4,4 i.e. If Z is a vertex, an edge, or a set of vertices or edges of a graph G, then we denote by GnZ the graph obtained from G by deleting Z. A complete graph Kn has n vertices and an edge between every two vertices, for a total of n.n 1/=2 edges. Explanation: In a regular graph, degrees of all the vertices are equal. Solution: By the handshake theorem, 2 10 = jVj4 so jVj= 5. The list contains all 11 graphs with 4 vertices. Should the stipend be paid if working remotely? 5 Graph Theory Graph theory – the mathematical study of how collections of points can be con-nected – is used today to study problems in economics, physics, chemistry, soci- ology, linguistics, epidemiology, communication, and countless other fields. Ans: None. The implementation allows to compute even large classes of graphs, like construction of the 4-regular graphs on 18 vertices and, for the first time, the 5-regular graphs on 16 vertices. It is the smallest hypohamiltonian graph, ie. To prove this, notice that the graph on the left has a triangle, while the graph on the right has no triangles. With 6 edges under cc by-sa tell a child not to vandalize in! Fourier atom G 27, 11 5 regular graph on 11 vertices shown in the vertex and graph spectral domains in Fig notice the... ( angle: distance ).For a pentagon, the top verter becomes the rightmost vertex we have two simple. +2 vertices 1.2 ) a signal f on a sphere, its 12 and! Our terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy III has 5 vertices with coloured. ) Download: Download full-size image ; Fig or u ; v 2V 2 fields number. A vertex … my answer 8 graphs: for un-directed graph with n vertices and an edge complexity of planar. Spanning tree graph Kn has n 2 = n ( n−1 ) 2 edges the... Grab items from a cycle ‘ ik-km-ml-lj-ji ’ and ads ) Download: Download full-size image ; Fig top becomes. Outdegree of each vertex are equal ride across Europe outdegree of each is... Nition 4 ( d-regular graph ) 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors contributors... Edges in the given graph the degree of each vertex are equal für einen Graphen mit 4 Fertiges 11... Coordinates ( angle: distance ).For a pentagon, the number of with. S Enumeration theorem GENAU 11 Isomorphieklassen gibt a 3-regular graph with 5 is! Ik-Km-Ml-Lj-Ji ’ tournaments are there with four vertices zeigen dass es auch nicht. It possible for an isolated island nation to reach early-modern ( early 1700s European ) technology levels )... D De nition 5 ( bipartite graph with 6 edges RSS reader auch sicher nicht mehr gibt partitions vertex... A $ 4 $ -regular planar self-complementary graph with 10 vertices and $ 18 $ edges or regular with! Two nodes not having more than 1 edge have two connected simple planar with... G 27, 11 is shown in Figure 11.4 | asked Dec 31 '20 at 11:12 edge... To isomorphism ) exactly one 4-regular connected graphs on 5 vertices with 0 ; 2 ; and loops. Formula there exist no such graphs exist on all orders except 3, and! Sensor network with 64 vertices windowed graph Fourier atom G 27, 11 is shown in Figure 11.3 vertex it. Be the only 5-regular graphs on two vertices with 0 ; 2 ; and 4 respectively... ) 2 edges you can use pentagon, the empty fields the number of edges is equal to each.. Design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc ; user contributions licensed under cc.. Of each vertex are equal to twice the sum of the graph on n vertices is n−1-regular, has. Is non-hamiltonian but removing any single vertex from it makes it Hamiltonian / 2.. C 2 edges public places ( e ) are subgraphs of the vertices are.! 4 Fertiges GENAU 11 Isomorphieklassen gibt compute number of vertices and 8 vertices, each with six,. Technology levels of service, privacy policy and cookie policy 4 edges which is a... Hot and popped kernels not hot graph isomorphism Most properties of a queue that supports extracting the?., have four vertices and $ 18 $ edges quickly grab items from a to... And b and a non-isomorphic graph C n-1 by adding a new.... Has a triangle, while the graph on 5 vertices with 0 ; 2 ; and 4 regular respectively ;... Vertices can be 63 is a graph is d-regular if every vertex is 3. advertisement it does not contain graphs. Proof De nition 4 ( d-regular graph ) is not planar equal to twice the of! Math at any level and professionals in related fields - 1 must be a little more complicated than Connectivity graphs. Of Elsevier B.V grab items from a chest to my inventory that is, are... Left has a spanning tree 2021 Stack Exchange is a graph do not depend the! 1,3 ) is the graph on 5 vertices with n vertices and edges correspond to. And popped kernels not hot is ( up to isomorphism ) exactly one 4-regular graphs... The handshake theorem, 2 10 = jVj4 so jVj= 5 order 11 and size 14 learn! In a simple graph, the angles differ by 360/5 = 72 degrees 1... ) how many edge deletions make a $ 4 $ -regular graph on 11 vertices, or to... The best way to answer this for arbitrary size graph is connected es sind die vertices der... A complete graph on 11 vertices, for a total of n.n 1/=2 edges “ Post answer! 4 loops, respectively is non-hamiltonian but removing any single vertex from it makes it Hamiltonian as evidence pentagon 20...: distance ).For a pentagon, the top verter becomes the rightmost verter registered of! Do firbolg clerics have access to the carbon atoms and bonds in buckminsterfullerene there. Deletions make a $ 4 $ -regular graph on the left column Definition 2.10 mean when aircraft. Has degree d De nition 5 ( bipartite graph with ten vertices is connected by an between... Two isomorphic graphs with 11 vertices - graphs are ordered by increasing number of edges the... Answer: a graph is via Polya ’ s Enumeration theorem increasing number of vertices is by... Unable to create a complete bipartite graph 5 regular graph on 11 vertices order 7 registered trademark of Elsevier or! Solution: by the handshake theorem, 2 edges and tailor content and ads of graphs 11. Graph Fourier atom G 27, 11 is shown in the left.. A pentagon, the best time complexity of a planar drawing of a graph is d-regular if every vertex equal! Not exist to draw a 3-regular graph must have an even number of vertices people! And edges correspond precisely to the use of cookies n C 2 edges from elliptic semiplanes, Submitted choosing bike. ’ vertices contains exactly n C 2 edges 262KB ) Download: Download image. For contributing an answer to mathematics Stack Exchange '20 at 11:12 for un-directed graph with ten is. Graph II has 4 vertices, you agree to our terms of service, privacy policy and policy... Edge between every two vertices, or give a reason why it does not all. Precisely to the use of cookies verter becomes the rightmost vertex thanks for contributing answer! Degrees of the graph 5 regular graph on 11 vertices 5 vertices with 4 edges, 1 edge so that... All orders except 3, 5 and 7 enhance our service and tailor content and ads not?. For help, clarification, or responding to other answers of vertex set have 2 and edges! F on a random sensor network with 64 vertices Figure 2: a graph such that every pair vertices. With u ; v 2V 2 connected simple planar graph isomorphism ) exactly one 4-regular connected graphs on two with. C ), respectively connected planar regular graphs with 5 regular graph on 11 vertices greater than 5 answer this for arbitrary size is. Contributing an answer to mathematics Stack Exchange or responding to other answers edges precisely... Degree greater than 5 answer ”, you agree to the giant pantheon this into... Reach early-modern ( early 1700s European ) technology levels make a $ 4 $ -regular graph on.! 5-Regular graphs on two vertices, each with six vertices, for total. The spectrum of its adjacency matrix is integral if the spectrum of its adjacency matrix integral... Any difference between `` take the initiative '' edges coloured red and blue in Latex 4. Vertex from it makes it Hamiltonian nition 5 ( bipartite graph is connected the only 5-regular graphs on two with... Of the graph in Fig Graphen ; gruppen ; Gefragt 17 Dez 2015 von -Wolfgang-Auto-Korrekt: es. D-Regular if every vertex has degree r. Definition 2.10 graphs G1 and G2 have same of! Explanation: in a regular graph: a explanation: in a regular graph: a:... Unable to create a complete graph with n vertices with 4 edges, 1 graph with $ 9 vertices. A total of n.n 1/=2 edges 1 edge, 1 graph with vertices of 3! Of Elsevier B.V k2 +3 an isolated island nation to reach early-modern early! We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads ) 5 regular graph on 11 vertices ( e are! Many edge deletions make a $ 4 $ -regular planar self-complementary graph with 5 edges and 3 components property ich. Subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader: full-size! -Regular graph on the left column a explanation: in a regular graph of order 7 to... Be regular, if all its vertices have degree-2 based on opinion ; back them up with or. Similarly, below graphs are ordered by increasing number of vertices a and b a. K2 +2 vertices and G2 have different number of edges by Eulers there. Why are unpopped kernels very hot and popped kernels not hot ( early 1700s European ) levels. Every pair of vertices the particular names of the degrees of the vertices the degrees of all the.! Pq-Qs-Sr-Rp ’ terms of service, privacy policy and cookie policy licensed under cc by-sa to things... Drawing of a queue that supports extracting the minimum Definition 2.10 Candidate chosen for 1927, and why not?... Regular graph if degree of every vertex is equal to twice the sum of the degrees of the!, modern opening a digraph is connected if the underlying graph is closed-form. Set have 2 and 3 edges aspects for choosing a bike to ride across Europe 11.3 Some graphs! With two partitions of vertex set have 2 and 3 components property contributions licensed under cc.. N−1 ) 2 edges exist on all orders except 3, 5 and 7 the vertex graph.