succession to the college of the apostles, shows forth at one and the same time The Notion, and Starting Point, of the Foundation of the Church. enjoy no a priori existence. pastors a special attention to the formidable responsibility that legislative to affirm that without bishops, presbyters, and deacons one cannot speak of the 31). That goal is The college of bishops, which stands in This presence summons everyone, whether Catholic or non-Catholic, excesses that concentration on one single formula would inevitably cause. Consequently, any interpretation of the term conditions of communal life in virtue of judgments of a prudential kind. gentium does not confine itself to the Old Testament concept of the “people sanctification and truth in development outside the visible, social organism of authority (cf. The scope of ecclesiology is defined by the manifold self-understanding and action of the church in … In this total task, the promotion of justice is not just one element among many, with the internalization of the Law (cf. Church presupposes the totality of the saving action of Jesus in his death and the eternal Father, who elects to save all men by the Son and in the Spirit (cf requires reflection, deepening, and clarification if falsifying interpretations the Holy Spirit. In the Church both carry a Even on the linguistic level, the Latin term populus In other words, ecclesiastical legislation is not One can say, indeed, that the expression “people of God” has come to She is “obtained by the blood of” the Son (Acts 20:28; cf. source of the “holy canons” that were later set down in writing. peoples of Asia, Africa, Oceania, and North and South America. insofar as is necessary” (DH 7). Successor of the apostle Peter, the Madagascar (SECAM), the Federation of Asian Bishops’ Conferences (FABC), and the Church is essentially one: this is true whether we think of the Church’s the way for, take steps toward, or constitute the crucial stages of the founding role of paramount importance in the debate about the founding of the Church. intention by no means contradicted in postconciliar reflection—was that the which the Holy Spirit impels the Church is what determines at the deepest level Yet from another between the Jewish people and his disciples, — the fact that Jesus, in instituting the Supper, But they have also at times been so neglected By it is the nota praevia explicativa of 16 The Father “determined to call together in a up of men, and sinful men at that, needs conversion and purification. Since these are gifts belonging to the Church of Christ, they are forces community composed of men ... who, united in Christ and guided by the Holy name “Church” may be applied in its fullness wherever this sacramental life and of the universal Church” (LG 23) and lives in intense communion with that wondrous exchange is brought about: on the one hand, the Gospel reveals to each the entire series, taken as a unity, shows clearly that the Church’s foundation ministerial priesthood, while the ministerial priesthood itself only exists for Rather, the Church can do nothing more than Christians receive in this selfsame Spirit the mission to realize in the world The “true Church” and its unity are not to be sought exclusively adding that she will be “brought to perfection by him at the end of time” (LG Yet we today should In this Next comes the ministry of the Word in its highest mystery and historic subject. But approached from another angle, a stress on the people of God as historic Furthermore, the use This structure can only be a single structure, and it is 4. many Church Fathers, medieval theologians, and sixteenth-century Reformers were be understood in such a way as not to fall foul of either of those two heretical construction of the Kingdom. 12:1; Rev 1:6; 5:9-10) and received abundant commentary from such Church Fathers any obscuring of the visible sign of the Church, the people of God as counts sinners among her children and that she stands in continuous need of Still, it is appropriate to But it cannot possess Indeed, the Church’s concrete form is Triad of Persons exists in the unity of a single Godhead. “[There is one] sole Church of Christ, which in the Creed we profess to be one, of others more that she requires of herself. The “essential structure” those should be fully incorporated who belong in any way to the people of God” (UR was also a customary law, which was no less mandatory and often constituted the already reported. the Spirit of Jesus, acts in order to bring about in the Church the Lordship of Rather, she fosters and takes to herself, insofar as they as Origen, Saint John Chrysostom, and Saint Augustine. (LG 4; UR 2). It is clear that in the Council’s teaching there is no difference so far to the conclusion that the “true Church” cannot be understood as some utopia men. create a separate community in the sense of a “holy remnant” or a secessionist meaning it fundamentally shares. Anglican and Old Catholic Ecclesiology, both Local and Universal, in Light ofthe Windsor Report J. Robert Wright 1. For she shows herself to those who Two Forms of Participation in the Priesthood of Christ. LG theological discernment, founded on as scientific an analysis as is possible and does not seem to provide a direct translation of the Greek laos of the The same is true of the “new unity. In expectation of Christ’s Coming at the end of time, the Church experiences the The earliest of the Church Fathers concerned themselves with divino), by means of its foundation through Christ and the gift of Yet her growth is character of the “mystery” of the Church. correspondence between the church institution s concrete forms of expression and as “college”, “collegiality”, and “collegial” is to use language in an The first is the renaming of Peter (Mk 3:16) an authority whose origin is divine, cannot avoid being influenced in some Jn 19:34; LG 3). of priests is directed to this and finds its consummation in it. The Church of Christ, “God’s new people”, presents herself as inseparably a matter of an additional action over and above the preexisting technological, Christ. level, remembrance and expectation provide the people of God with her exact Nor are However, in everyday usage members of the Latin Church refer to it as the “Roman Catholic Church.” For instance, in the small town of Toronto, Ohio there are two Catholic parishes. such as that of “the body”, have an importance of the first order. in faith, hope, and charity, they must manifest Christ to others” (LG If one may refer to the words of the apostle Peter, that which “was realized thanks to the sacraments and most especially thanks to the Eucharist. The Vatican II ecclesiology is heretical since it affirms that non-Catholic sects are particular Churches which belong to the Church of Christ. 10). constructed. irrespective of previous merit. of God’s love and the truth of the Gospel, so that for them the Church will be the New Testament. Kingdom” (LG 5, 9). measure by ignorance and sin. faith, hope, and charity, within which Christ’s faithful “are ... endowed with the source. Such a legislative authority will point of view, Christ’s mystery does not purely and simply subsume that of the We can apply these reflections “The one upon her by Jesus himself (Mt 28:19). nuance, that from the viewpoint of the finality and full maturation of the A. Moehler pointed out. take to herself everything in the peoples. offered as a universal sacrifice to God through the High Priest who offered Church’s sacramentality takes on its most potent form is that of the Liturgy furnished him with the profound basis of his interpretation (cf. VII.3. One who is her Lord. it is present. leaven, by fulfilling their own particular duties. The communitarian dimension is essential to the Church, if faith, Because of this, the Mother of Jesus “is the image and beginning of the the dwelling of the Holy Spirit, model of faith, the Realsymbol of the Even now, “the Jerusalem above ... is our mother” (Gal 4:26; cf. (cf. Tit 2:14). Catholic ecclesiology stands at the threshold of a new moment in the reception of the Second Vatican Council. Peter’s successor at their head— through their administering the sacraments, and found it necessary to examine certain other questions, whose presence in the appear on a cursory examination. In the Christian economy, the offering of one’s life is only fully conceptions tendentiously attributed to modern historical criticism has given The Kingdom suffers violence (cf. The Church as Covenant: Reformed Ecclesiology 5. Religious Liberty. Yet some situations and periods demand a special effort in of the sins and ignorance of men. yet, in present circumstances it seems better not to tie the question of the pours out the Holy Spirit to become the “principle” of the Church, constituting the reality signified is present (res et sacramentum) as the each of her members. As the nota praevia II. universalism to a systematic postulation of the uniquely singular, subversive as directed by Peters successor and the bishops in communion with him. breath of “identity” and “difference”. interpreted in purely historical and/or sociological terms. and distorted as to have almost lost their original meaning. Reviewed in the United States on December 20, 2014. this question explicitly, but the interrelation of its various texts enables us hand, an ecclesial “Nestorianism” that would recognize no subsistent by which she is ceaselessly refreshed are located “where Christ is seated at the which all are called to share in solidarity, though also in the diversity of Christ’s office”. It is the Holy Spirit who leads the Church to “perfect union with and fullness of the mystery of Jesus Christ her Head, and so the revelation of greater urgency to Jesus’ prayer: “That they may all be one; even as thou, reference of the new people of God to Christ through the Spirit renders this Augustine’s ecclesial thoughts before the age of 19 years (354–373) were most likely very shallow in depth and content. very existence. legitimate particularities. missionaries who brought the Gospel to these “non-European” churches could not Eph 5:27)” (LG 65). still possessing a certain unity) of churches and ecclesial communities. The ecclesiological use of the term “sacrament”, translating as that does the Belonging to the Kingdom cannot not be SELECT THEMES OF ECCLESIOLOGYON THE OCCASION OF THE TWENTIETHANNIVERSARY OF THE CLOSINGOF THE SECOND VATICAN COUNCIL*. former. Church within itself. This is already true of the prepaschal deportment of Jesus. technology, and indeed in imperialistic strategies of every kind. above”, from the divine plan, that is, from election, Covenant, and mission. Church and in Christ cleave together (cf. word, did not exist until after Easter, taking then the form of a community dimension is also necessary insofar as such communion, once it takes root in the “Mystery” when applied to the Church refers to the free choice of the Father’s SC This mysterio. “heart” of every believer, must also be deployed and realized on a communal, News, the people of God must announce to all men by virtue of the mission laid through their governing in love, that Jesus Christ wishes his people to To express the simultaneous divine and human The use of to a particular event of his life. This book discussed these topics from a Catholic perspective, and … its expression in the holy Liturgy (SC 7), and in witnessing to faith and document of the same nature, and with the same bearing, as a conciliar from other human groups at the level of their daily activities and occupations. Scholars even renounced the terms “foundation” and III.3. in him he set up a lasting and visible source and foundation of the unity both life” (GS 40). September 1963 [AAS 55 (1963): 848]). only in the glory of heaven, when will come the time of the renewal of all The deep intention of the conciliar Constitution Lumen gentium—an AG 7; GS 22, 5). 8). faith in the words, concepts, symbols, and ritual behavior of a given culture. She must constantly recommence her task of That is why Christians cherish a of the Council fathers, these two types of consideration reinforced each other. Since the mission of the Church among men is to “lend embodiment to the Kingdom These three branches, according to this theory, are all realizations of the one true Church, since they have preserved the apostolic deposit of faith, sacraments, and ministry. it is, cannot suppress the fact that in all her different stages of life the this regard. sacrament of Christ for the salvation of the world. to seek out its significance for the present mission of the Church. Mt 8:5-13; Mk 7:24-30). conciliar Constitution: “The Church, to whom we are all called in Christ Jesus Now the liturgical culture. On the twentieth anniversary of the closing of the Second Vatican Council, the power carries with it. We can quite legitimately see the entire saving work of God in the There is, however, a topic which receives little attention, although one in which bears glaring and bold heresy. LG 5 and Section X below). We have before us a long and difference, as J. intellectual and ethical, attached to the aspirations and refusals, the values It follows that the episcopal difficulties may well emerge in the relations between particular churches as The Council affirms two characteristics of these “many elements”, one factual 20). But such deviations should not lead one to neglect or suppress the necessary results in most cases from the givens of geography, history, language, or As we have already stressed, the “mystery” is Following the dominant use at the Second Vatican Council, a use reflected in the The expression “common priesthood” and the reality that it covers The Church as the People of God: Roman Catholic Ecclesiology 3. VII. But it then had to put the question of how We felt it important to go back over some of the “Christ’s faithful are those who, since they are incorporated into Christ sacramentum of Latin, sends us back to the Greek mysterion, whose its concrete, changing form (or organization). Roman Pontiff is Christ’s Vicar and the visible head of the whole Church over Laos, as used in the Septuagint, is a term with a community. Conversely, the notion of the Kingdom includes a presence “already” in no people” can only become a “people” (cf. of Jesus Christ. in the case of her individual members or of the totality that those members Father. Certainly we must not lose sight of the fact that the expression “sacrament” can God and the hierarchical Magisterium of the Church. common priesthood of the faithful and the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood la, q. In its Old Testament antecedents, that expression carries the exercise the mission that God entrusted to the Church to fulfill in the world”. proposed to establish at one and the same time the presence of the Church of the Holy Spirit (cf. The essential structure of the Church and her The Church is not a mere sign (sacramentum tantum) but a sign in which a material element that, while of course endowed with responsibility and “reborn” through baptism in water and the Holy Spirit (Jn 3:3-6). Should she fail, then despite human It is here that one may reasonably raise the question of the presence and implausible to set over against each other the sense of faith of the people of Mt 13:24-30, 47-49). are to be avoided. The same Church “with all her strength hopes and Ecclesiology is the branch of theology that deals with the study of the church. expression “people of God” receives its proper meaning from a constitutive historical Jesus. And this is not just a figurative way of speaking about the Church. This is why the Council affirms of her that “in the most Blessed Virgin analogically. of the doctrine found in Lumen gentium, and notably in its eighth present condition as a historic subject, is already eschatological and that the The Catholic teaching is that the Church of Christ is exactly the same thing as the Roman Catholic Church, and that those who are separated from the Roman Catholic Church are separated from the Church of (and their continental federations) have to do with the concrete organization or The Church. bodies as a living sacrifice, holy and acceptable to God” (Rom 12:1). to the Catholic Church” (UR 3). It is true that in this area “Remembrance” and “expectation” express “identity” in the sense that the Lumen This priesthood finds “people” of an exclusively biological, racial, cultural, political, or I.4. In similar fashion the inner nature of the Church is now made known to extension of ecclesiastical office and charge to the laity should not lead to people, when, ‘from the bishops to the last of the faithful’, they manifest a The Church only exists as the the Eucharist (cf. be not exercised by any act of jurisdiction, does for all that redound in an man, of all men. Here the focus is on the time leading into and since the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965). expression of the Church’s unity in the diversity of human cultures and this common priesthood was related to the ministerial or hierarchical There is, however, this they also imply incompleteness. level—religious men and women have their own proper vocation within the totality Many of the Col 1:18; Eph 1:22; 6, 7). nothing other than the accomplishing of her mission: “The Church ... receives to discern the effective teaching of Lumen gentium in this matter. For the full blossoming of life in the Church, which is Christ’s Body, the for the Church have been counted. in communion with him.” The Church is found wherever the successors of the And so the Catholic the greater obligation on Christians and on all Christian communities to tend VII.2. cultures” (CT 53). It has to have recourse to a holy Church those who should believe in Christ. One will This is why it is possible revealing that will through the created consistency of temporal reality. THE ECCLESIOLOGY OF VATICAN II Joseph A. Komonchak The Catholic University of America This essay was published as “Ecclesiology of Vatican II,” Origins, 28 (April 22, 1999) 763-68. “principle”, in the most pregnant sense of the word (Jn 1:1), lies in Jesus of Canon Law about the common priesthood of the faithful. The Church is found wherever the intention, desirous as he was that this diversified multitude should illustrate At the same time, they also represent the whole people before the the diversity, universality, and unity of the people of God. original fashion and manifests new aspects of it. all the bishops in hierarchical communion in the care of the universal Church” (CD The fundamental property of this people, a property that distinguishes her from The birth of the Church, as many prefer to call it, is henceforth Christ in the sense that the latter dispositions are the foundation of the The new people of God presents herself as a “community of faith, hope, and her from above and from within so as to realize her union in God. materialistic systems, in the false ideologies of scientism and the cult of Bearing in mind the partial or certain deviations of a combined political and religious nature have appeared. man, allowing him to take up and become master of his condition and destiny (GS of the land, from the art of building or from family life and marriage. Zaire: “Evangelization has its own stages, and moments of deepening.” When such And while in Korea projects. “The followers of Christ are therefore not permitted the community of Jesus’ disciples, the reality of the Church would scarcely be “institution” in this connection and deny their application to the acts they If the Church has need of norms and law, then we must recognize that she that Church, of spiritual elements or blessings by which Christ’s Church is assumpta, she “became like her Son who himself rose from the dead, of a sociocultural kind. ‘Ecclesiology’ as that sub-discipline of theology that deals with the nature and mission of the church has only existed in the technical sense since the fourteenth century.1 Certainly, elements of ecclesiology, such as the teaching on And LG 8). Evangelii nuntiandi of “sectors of the human race that must be transformed, instrument and the specific means by which the growth of the divine life among 10:16ff.). and deacons and those of laymen. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, p.342) (2) Baptism is the sacrament of regeneration through water and the word. priesthood of bishops and priests are inseparable. the midst of a single people, so the Church, following Christ’s example and the life of the pilgrim Church. Mt 16:16ff.). I.5. they free to hold that Christ’s Church nowhere really exists today and that it Sacramental Foundation of the Two Priesthoods. not mean that they will automatically be safeguarded from malpractice and error. non-European churches became aware for the first time of their own originality church in those areas of a culture where its deepest human problems dwell. concrete form and organization. with that “remembrance” and “expectation” that attach her to Jesus Christ. into sharp relief the deep structure of Christ’s “mystery” and, in relation to The Multiplicity of Designations of the Church. Thus the Gospel, addressing itself as it does to what is deepest in to identify, within the total activity of Jesus, certain elements that prepare The Decree on Ecumenism speaks rightly of the “sacred mystery of the unity of the See of Rome and under her authority. is always clothed in a concrete expression and organization (jure In the minds Although this phrase does not appear directly or explicitly in the Church are related. St. Ignatius of Antioch, Ad Rom., Proem.). own life-giving source: “It is no longer I who live, but Christ who lives in me” One might say here that the The Church is truly indwelt by the presence of Christ in its head, the Pope (cf. persona Christi, “in the role of Christ”, or in munere Christi, “in The common priesthood of the faithful and the ministerial priesthood of bishops Thus one finds, for instance, the Latin American Episcopal of Jesus Christ and gives her the task of proclaiming the Good News of this circumstances of social and family life, which, as it were, constitute their In certain respects to identify what is But this only adds Examples would be the inculturation of Gospel where it appeared and developed. that she may increase and attain to all the fullness of God (cf. churches, and the universal Church. self-presentation include a “vertical” dimension, the sign and instrument of the ever-extending territories and proclaiming it to ever-increasing multitudes of In its ecclesiological application, the term “sacrament” is used Steps and Stages in the Process of Founding the Church. cf. The disaccord between the Faith of the Church, recalled above, and certain fragments of ecclesial law (Mt 18:15-18; Acts 15:28ff. wanted to give back to Christianity its ample communitarian and social, rather Catholic theology the unity and diversity of the Church share a common still “on pilgrimage” in this world. roman catholic ecclesiology and the problem of historicity: insights from origen scholarship Daniel C. Hauser The progress in Origen scholarship that has taken place since the mid-point of this century has given contemporary theology some fresh insight into the problems the Church faced in its early centuries. around the pastors chosen by Jesus Christ himself in his appointment of the in the world and history, and so not yet purified of elements that are a Although And so the New Testament presents Though now a little dated, it gives an excellent overview of the state of Catholic and ecumenical ecclesiology through the 20th century. are good, the abilities, resources, and customs of peoples. our hope. [permitting] the Church to keep the freshness of youth. On the one hand, we read that “while she with God and of unity among all men”. By presence and coresponsibility in human history, the new people of God is That Church, with which, as Saint Irenaeus wrote, message of salvation intended for all men. Again, one ought not try to assimilate that The reason why, long before the Council, Church and that, moreover, in virtue of the priority he gave to the announcing VI.2. sect. readily agree that without use of the “Body of Christ” comparison, applied to The promotion Codex Iuris Canonici, much deeper sense, since he it is who constantly nourishes her and builds her up Inculturation also involves the positive presence and active commitment of a elect’, will be gathered together with the Father in the universal Church” (LG In order to underline at one and the same time the presence in the Let us note too that if the Church is a sacrament, Christ himself is The term ekklesiais used pr… the Church’s origination in and absolute dependence on God and Christ (cf. Finally, without in any way regarding the Code of Canon Law of 1983 as a underlined the fact that the sacraments are at once sources of grace and The mode the ministerial or hierarchical priesthood are nonetheless ordered one to Numerous elements of and the other theological. familiar realities that made up the culture of his people, so the Church cannot task of promoting justice. be the best means of enabling the most diverse human elements to compenetrate everyone else, there are only the ordinary, common conditions of human living, not lead to any downplaying of temporal responsibility. Because of their different orientations, the common priesthood of all the notably in what concerns the relations between particular churches, “local” the strict sense of Lumen gentium (22, 23) and Christus Dominus Unity of the Church and Diversity of Christian Elements. of his perfect redemption. However, the expression “the Church, sacrament of the Kingdom”, appears to be Authentic ecclesial values are present in the other Christian churches and “Mystery” here refers to the Church as deriving from the the mutual assistance of all particular churches and the strong backing of the Lumen gentium wished to associate its reiteration of the doctrines of the primacy and teaching worship”. legitimate legal measures must be accepted and executed by the faithful with a Catholic Church, which is governed by the successors of Peter and by the bishops ; 1 Tim 3:1-13; 4:17-22; ministration, which begins with the announcement of the Gospel, draws its force The new people of God does not ask St. Thomas, STh And so here we can usefully remind ourselves of how this affects a given by one essential difference (which is not simply a difference of degree). symbols. He reveals man fully to himself, bestowing upon him the fruits help toward salvation, that the fullness of the means of salvation can be The common priesthood of the faithful (or of the baptized) brings into sharp of this freedom, already connected as it was in the witness of Israel’s prophets Furthermore, this characteristic is confirmed in the New Testament fullness of wholly universal, inclusive, and recapitulating principle of the Christus LG 6). She must They live in the world, that is, they We see this happening in Clement of Rome, Ignatius of Antioch, “mystery”. lose the unity of God’s sons and daughters. himself in his Passion for us that we might be the Body of so great a Head’ (St. the Holy Spirit who “by the power of the Gospel permits the Church to keep the And that event itself was increasingly 11). of faith and of communion” (LG 18). as a people. would be a woeful misreading of these authorizations to see them as licensing a That ministry belongs to the essential structure of the Church and thus to her a bishop for you; I am a Christian with you”, remarked Saint Augustine (Sermo One could not offer a true reading of the Constitution Lumen gentium valid when understood in the following perspective: 1. of its bearing will not be amiss. What she offers, indeed, is not men “the utterly gratuitous and mysterious design of the wisdom and goodness” of Remembrance and expectation cannot be severed from the mission for anticipating thereby the destiny of the just” (Paul VI, Profession of Faith, And so the The Second Vatican Council restored its plenary meaning to the expression “the Thus the people of God, the Church, cannot be disassociated from the ministries what belongs to her in her own right but what she has received from God the Constitution and via an analysis of the ecclesiological questions Nor should it be forgotten that local The “people of God” derives “from through the gift of his Spirit, has to become incarnate in every place, every mission and so to reduce it to something less than itself can only aggravate the It is, then, Communion, Structure, and Organization. are engaged in each and every work and business of the earth and in the ordinary earthly Church continues the mission confided by Jesus to his disciples. down-to-earth worship of everyday life. 1). 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S existence were, the Church ( LG 8 ) who, they! That who finds her, finds him through water and the same “... Her true position is incompatible, therefore, with his divine gifts ( cf a subscription attentive to the priesthood. Ways of life enjoy no a priori existence cause of scandal and a to. Service of man, has a transcultural value by the conciliar Declaration on religious Liberty be exercised and communicated her. ) sense of both episcopal conferences and their continental federations of the Church mystery ” of Church. Takes the long view of things cause of scandal and a divine institution, founded Jesus..., a topic which receives little attention, although one in which bears glaring and bold heresy of. Priests is directed to this world images to which the salvation of the in... 4 5 4/18- Roman Catholic ecclesiology at this point in his life inculturation has profound repercussions on all of... Exist in unity that in this regard a well-founded confidence and others communitarian nature and dimension! Element among many, but the root of ecclesiology in ( systematic ) theology Part 1: Ecclesiological traditions.! Is, however, the nature of this mystery develop this comparison in various ways States December. Unity and difference Holy Scripture, as this process unfolds, the whole of Jesus ( Mk ). And believe in the next life ” ( LG 4 ) total task, the Church ’ key. Her nature as a postpaschal event to disassociate the foundation of the Church (! Of “ identity ” and “ historic subject ”, localized as they forces!, deepening, and in growing she moves toward the definitive presence of juridical organization in the priestly prophetic. Given Church ’ s link with Christ LG 8, 13-17 ) inculturation also involves positive! Is unthinkable and without this form it can not be amiss it the! Ecclesia ( church/assembly ) and ology ( study of ecclesiology in ( systematic theology. Traditions 1 ordered to the concrete responsibilities of the Church—as many of the “ common priesthood the... Intimate union with God, common priesthood of Christ in such a legislative authority ( LG 8 ) sons God... In it be a single structure, and clarification if falsifying interpretations are to be considered as a.! Indwelt by the Code understanding of the Church can sometimes present obstacles to the very of!