0000003218 00000 n This infers a connection between this past decade of counterinsurgency, and the people’s wars of previous eras. counterinsurgency campaigns exhibited fundamental characteristics that remained constant. However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. 1 - 1 1-2. 0000003672 00000 n ... What are some principles, which you have identified, that have not changed with the evolution of technology? g�D�v֦R"N����o��Z���7�-s;�=�+W �p�K%a��n�aZ��������LUa�>}x=d�0T! Consequently, … Irregular-warfare tactics, on the other hand, have shown a far higher likelihood of success against American military forces. 0000010997 00000 n At its core, a counterinsurgency is a battle for government legitimacy in the minds of its people. startxref In true Clausewitzian fashion, the first principle – the political aim – is regarded as the most important, with the others all being of … 0000014936 00000 n This study posits there are 17 principles of counter-insurgency warfare which fall into four broad categories: strategic, operational, logistical, and cultural. Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee success, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. How do the principles … *�:����p��^� 'i����ߵ�y#p3J!�:�ā�k�Z�j(��5Vq���tm���|�ҹw�%ޠą��QZ��� As John Paul Vann, an American adviser in Vietnam, said, "Security may be ten percent of the problem, or it may be ninety percent, but whatever it is, it's the first ten percent or the first ninety percent. 10, The Janus Face of War Counter Insurgency in the Post Modern Era, pp. In his Reflexiones Militares, published between 1726 and 1730, he discussed how to spot early signs of an incipient insurgency, prevent insurgencies, and counter them, if they could not be warded off. H�l�MO�0���s�W$������p �R#q�{HS��nk������_��‰�y�}�u��@DB��D$e�B5B,�8� �Z�v�`ИA�ʆ�vO��*�;X�q>v}. The United States has a long but convoluted history of counterinsurgency, or COIN. Block 2: Principles and Paradoxes of Counterinsurgency Module 2.1 Population-centric and Enemy-centric COIN Module 2.2 NATO Principles of COIN Module 2.3 Paradoxes of COIN Block 3: Operational Environment Module 3.1 Elements of a Stable State Module 3.2 Elements of State Instability Module 3.3 Components and Analysis of the Operational Environment Sir Robert Thompson’s Lessons for Iraq: Bringing the ‘Basic Principles of Counter‐Insurgency’ into the 21st Century. endstream endobj 490 0 obj<>stream Irregular warfare has been ubiquitous throughout history and is more important than ever today, at a time when conventional warfare is growing increasingly rare. 0000011630 00000 n 0000002614 00000 n This FMI establishes doctrine (fundamental principles and TTP) for military operations in a counterinsurgency environment. If there were no immutable laws or empirical formulas for counterinsurgency, there existed certain basic principles and traits that marked and will continue to mark successful, and unsuccessful, outcomes. It is the foremost responsibility of a commander in a COIN environment to understand the unique human and geographical terrain on which the maneuver forces operate. 0000010305 00000 n 0000002157 00000 n ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012. How "self determination" and "services" are defined will vary from country to country and even from village to village. What deficiencies have you identified in your own understanding of COIN? International organizations, non-governmental organizations, and the news media are also likely to be present on the battlefield, and the successful commander must interact with them constructively, and if possible use them to achieve campaign objectives, even though they are outside the military chain of command. First, maneuver leaders should become familiar with the relevant Army doctrine, which in turn can provide leaders with a context for studying history. U�?��c�=�Fi���֘��+�v���W��R3ki �E���rrUg��x���Q_���Ik���A-�N5�M�1:�Q�\��ucB�>p]Y�C�x0���q�0 |f��4 ��D�[��I荴X�J��U~�0�|׊O(L�o�� գ,1c8ܚ���ԫVz����)��i�ZQ���T Such unrestrained use of force characterised by outrageous airpower shooting and heavy attacks on the hamlets severely damaged their credibility with the rural population (Ong, 2007, p. 16). Only by living among the people and protecting them from insurgent intimidation can a military force gain the people's trust and thus acquire the understanding necessary to target insurgent cadres. This manual continues the efforts of FM 3-24, Counterinsurgency, The counterinsurgency guidance issued there is the argument that the by General McChrystal strongly echoed the appearance of stability in Iraq was counterinsurgency principles of FM 3–24 and illusory and that the country’s worst the guidance provided by General Petraeus in years still lie ahead Iraq. 0000008019 00000 n %%EOF The widely distributed and influential work of Sir Robert Thompson offers several such guidelines. Examples include the Philippine Insurrection, the Boer War, the Huk Rebellion, the Malay Emergency, the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland, the 1980s war in El Salvador, the "surge" in Iraq, the Second Intifada, and Colombia's campaign against the FARC in the past decade. They collaboratively authored the book "Counterinsurgency in Crisis. Without security nothing else will last." The Taliban … Fundamental Principles of COIN . 0000002766 00000 n 177-194. Insurgencies typically have political or religious motivation but criminal gangs can also become powerful enough to imperil a state's authority. 0000005213 00000 n It does mean addressing the desire of the people for self-determination and the delivery of some basic governmental services. The ten principles for counterinsurgency, explained in Chapter 3, are: 1. This project sets out to identify underlying tenets (or principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. What training can I implement into my unit so that subordinates will develop a better understanding of COIN? 0 Future combat leaders should heed Lawrence's injunction to study hard, especially when preparing for COIN—the most intellectually challenging realm of warfare. Counterinsurgency: Principles and Practices in Viet-Nam Author: James Farmer Subject: Discussion of the criteria for measuring success in counterinsurgency. FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. Insurgents, in fact, count on security forces to over-react and thereby to drive more recruits into their ranks. An insurgency is an organized uprising that uses violent and nonviolent means to overthrow an existing government or to wrest away control, either de jure or de facto, over part of its territory. As technology develops, how do you think insurgency and counterinsurgency will evolve? Our enemies study, and are inspired by, the examples of Vietnam, Beirut (1983), Somalia (1993), Iraq, Afghanistan and other conflicts where irregular forces have inflicted significant setbacks and even defeats on American forces. Second, once familiar with relevant doctrine, leaders should read books and articles that provide an overview of irregular warfare operations since ancient times as well as accounts of its evolution since the early 20th century. 0000003067 00000 n Strikingly, Santa Cruz recognized that insurgencies are usually due to real grievances: "A state rarely rises up without the fault of its governors." 0000004224 00000 n <]>> The author concludes that a Viet Cong military victory in South Vietnam is not possible as … The Army should use the lessons learned in Iraq and Afghanistan to more effectively combat the current war against sexual predators in the Armed Forces. Some of that intelligence can be acquired by technical means, but there is no substitute for the situational awareness provided by security forces (whether American or host-nation) who are in daily contact with the population. fG1400263H the contrary, the US Army considered it its greatest technological advantage against the insurgents (Laqueur, 1998, p. 275). Nor does it necessarily involve spending lots of money on expensive public-works projects that the locals may not want and will be unable to operate on their own. endstream endobj 508 0 obj<>/Size 470/Type/XRef>>stream 0000001899 00000 n Department of the Army Field Manual (FM) 3-24, Counterinsurgency, defines COIN as military, paramilitary, political, economic, psychological, and civic actions taken by a government to defeat an insurgency. Principles of Counterinsurgency The principles and imperatives of modern coun­ terinsurgency provide guideposts for forces engaged in cOiN campaigns. 0000004605 00000 n Army Field Manual 3-24: Counterinsurgency [open pdf - 14 MB] "This field manual/Marine Corps war-fighting publication establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for military operations in a counterinsurgency (COIN) environment. This field manual establishes doctrine (fundamental principles) for tactical counterinsurgency (COIN) operations at the company, battalion, and brigade level. The third Marques of Santa Cruz de Marcenado(1684–1732) is probably the earliest author who dealt systematically in his writings with counter-insurgency. endstream endobj 491 0 obj<>stream 0000001714 00000 n What enemy TTPs and environmental conditions can we incorporate into our training to improve our COIN proficiency? Thompson's underlying assumption is that of a country minimally … (qRO�Ҫ����l��fW�s�{����՛������_͖s�p?�������6��#NA(p�B*)�L�TD�O�"ɉbXs���G But what does all the theory mean, at the company level? Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. America's enemies understand that to fight the U.S. armed forces with conventional forces in the open field is tantamount to suicide—as Saddam Hussein discovered for himself. 0000019861 00000 n "Irregular warfare is far more intellectual than a bayonet charge." Understanding what is involved in such campaigns will give civilian The remaining six chapters cover the operational aspects of the overall campaign; intelligence, the … Counterinsurgency is warfare; it is distinctly political, not primarily military; and it involves the people, the government, and the military. Defence Studies: Vol. --T.E. General Petraeus: I think many of the concepts of the past counterinsurgency campaigns remain valid. studied FM 3-24 and now understand the history, philosophy and theory of counterinsurgency. Property & Peace: Insurgency, Strategy and the Statute of Frauds, DIA, 2008. ", Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Questions and Answers, Dr. David Ucko and Dr. Robert Egnell Interview. --Field Marshal Sir Gerald Templer. Additional counterinsurgency doctrine is being developed. It is based on lessons learned from previous counterinsurgencies and contemporary operations. H�|�Ko�0������E�mأ���Q*E�(�. Created Date: 2/15/2008 12:09:02 PM 0000002540 00000 n 0000014300 00000 n 0000014415 00000 n However, counterinsurgency is a strange and complicated beast. Counterinsurgency is the use of all elements of a nation's power—including not only combined-arms operations but also psychological, political, economic, intelligence, and diplomatic operations—to defeat an insurgency. Securing the population is thus the most important line of operations. xref 470 0 obj <> endobj from the early “classics” of the Western counterinsurgency canon such as those of David Galula and Sir Robert Thompson through to the recent U.S. field manual on counterinsurgency, FM 3-24.10 As discussed in detail below, there is reason to believe that two core principles of Western counterinsurgency doctrine—the need to Insurgents capitalize on societal problems, often called gaps; counte… principles) in counter-insurgency warfare in order to optimize conditions for success on the battlefield as well as throughout the duration of the conflict. From: Counter Insurgency Operations(1995) These principles are in fact derived from earlier UK works dating back as far as 1977. 0000005712 00000 n Following the principles and imperatives does not guarantee suc­ cess, which is just one of the several paradoxes of counterinsurgency. x�bb�``b``Ń3� ���ţ�A.0 ��� Lawrence attributed his success in aiding the Arab Revolt against the Ottoman Empire to "hard study and brain-work and concentration," an example at odds with what he denounced as the "fundamental, crippling, incuriousness" of many fellow officers who were "too much body and too little head." Using the principles of revolutionary warfare evolved by the British Staff College, Camberley, the author has examined the validity of those principles. Combined-arms operations will be required to route insurgents out of their strongholds and to provide security against their incursions into population centers. 0000001118 00000 n From Strategy to Tactics 61 Command Problems 61 Selection of the Area of Efforts 67 Political Preparation 71 The First Area as … Principles of Counterinsurgency . 0000014577 00000 n 0000007224 00000 n For all these reasons irregular warfare will continue to be prevalent. You watched Black Hawk Down and The Battle of Algiers, and you know this will be the most difficult challenge of your life. Most insurgencies utilize a combination of guerrilla and terrorist tactics—the former are hit-and-run attacks directed primarily at government security forces, the latter are attacks directed primarily against civilians—supported by propaganda and political organizing. 0000014362 00000 n trailer 0000003520 00000 n H�tT]o�0}ϯ��0%��TUZ�Vj�HU˴��8��#B��w��Ǻ.y ���{�.F,b��P���x�͠�!�Q�80(��� >���@ZU Letter from Iraq: The Lesson of Tal Afar, by George Packard, The New Yorker, April 10, 2006, The Colombian Miracle by Max Boot and Richard W. Bennett, The Weekly Standard, December 7, 2009, 28 Articles: Fundamentals of Company-Level Counterinsurgency by David Kilcullen, Conflict in the 21st Century: The Rise of Hybrid Wars, by Frank Hoffman, Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, Dr. Ucko and Dr. Egnell explore the lessons about counterinsurgency that we have learned during the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. and Psychological Dimensions of War, Strategy and the Political Dimensions of War, Technology, Doctrine and Combat Development, FM 3-24: Army/Marine Counterinsurgency Field Manual, ATTP 3-37.31, Civilian Casualties Mitigation, June 2012, FM 3-05.2, Foreign Internal Defense, September 2011. To what extent do you see classical principles of counterinsurgency still applicable today? 0000002916 00000 n 0000014523 00000 n Counterinsurgency Principles for the Diplomat. the principles of warfare remain the same. 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